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SOCIAL,
POLITICAL,
MAJOR LINGUISTIC
TIME CULTURAL & EXAMPLES
DEVELOPMENTS
ECONOMIC
INFLUENCES
Romans
st th
1 ­ 5 occupied Limited influence from Latin on Manchester, Lancaster, Chester derive
centuries mainly native language this period
England
Celtic language displaced except
on borders of UK
O.…read more

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American English began becoming
The spread of literacy & education
The increasingly different to British English
& printed word extended access to
19th
expansion of Grammar & pronunciation see few majo
standard & written forms of English
century British & changes
Media extended process of
present American
In late 20th
& early 21st centuries, was a
spreading of English as a world
English towards more colloquial & casual styles o
language
language (reflect social change)…read more

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Adverbs
Changed position the ripest fruit f
irst falls
Contractions Will not it be a good idea? > Won't
Word order (syntax) Particularly pronouns dreadful they were > they were dreadful
Dummy auxiliary She wanted not to go > she did not want to go
Modern:
Adverbs
> Replacing adverbs with adjectives you've done great
adjectives
Irregular verbs
Still changing I've wrote it
Pronouns Whom > who
Second Person Earliest form were `thou' and `thee'
Pronouns From French influence `tu' became the informal version of…read more

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Orthography The method of spelling
Refer to nonstandard orthography of words from the past in
comparison to how we write them today
Etymology The origin of a word or the history of how it came to be
Ampersand `&' ­ arguably more prominent in older texts
Nonstandard Allocated midsentence/nouns
capitalisation
Anachronistic language Something written in an old style but contains modern dialogue
Inverted syntax Ordering of a word is rearranged for alternative weighting
Semantic shift Shift of a word's meaning over time…read more

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Androcentric A view that something is biased towards Man is primate
men
Lexical Same meaning, different connotations Spinster/bachelor
asymmetry
Overt marking Marking through affixation or Male nurse
modification
Marked Semantic derogation express gender Waitress/stewardess
expressions
Feminine Use of female pronouns for objects
She's a pretty boat
inanimate
Generic terms Generic terms that favour men Mankind
Generic `he' `he' is used to describe all people If he wishes
Inclusive usage Neutral terms replacing old, marked Fireman > firefighter
terms
1348 English replaces Latin in most schools…read more

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William Bullockar's pamphlet for grammar
1604 First English dictionary
1623 Shakespeare published
1755 Samuel Johnson publishes his English Dictionary
1928 Oxford Dictionary published…read more

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