Detailed notes on entire course

Includes language change, spoken language, language acquisition, gender theories & glossary of ALL key terms

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English Language

Neologism A new word
Archaism Obsolete no longer in use
Initialism BBC, T.V
Acronym NASA
Clipping Forming words by dropping one or more syllables e.g. flu
Affixation Addition of prefix/suffixes e.g. sudden(ly)
Conversion Word changes class e.g. text (noun > verb)
Compound Two words added together e.g. girl…

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st th
1 ­ 5 occupied Limited influence from Latin on Manchester, Lancaster, Chester derive
centuries mainly native language this period
Celtic language displaced except
on borders of UK
O.E developed from the Germanic
Invasion of

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American English began becoming
The spread of literacy & education
The increasingly different to British English
& printed word extended access to
expansion of Grammar & pronunciation see few majo
standard & written forms of English
century British & changes
Media extended process of
present American
In late 20th…

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Broadening A words meaning becomes more general e.g. rubbish
Narrowing A words meaning becomes more specific
Amelioration A word acquires a more positive meaning e.g. sick
Pejoration A word acquires a more negative meaning e.g. awful
Weakening Words lose some of their original strength (swear words)
Metaphor Words acquire new…

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Estuary English Dialect derived from estuary of the Thames used commonly to downplay

Overall layout Focus on appealing areas scan for the content we seek
Font/typeface Expands with technology > printed press
Bold/italics/underlining Emphasis more common with technology
Upper & lower case letters Master & master
Visual symbols Emoticons…

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Changed position the ripest fruit f
irst falls
Contractions Will not it be a good idea? > Won't
Word order (syntax) Particularly pronouns dreadful they were > they were dreadful
Dummy auxiliary She wanted not to go > she did not want to go
> Replacing adverbs…

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Orthography The method of spelling
Refer to nonstandard orthography of words from the past in
comparison to how we write them today
Etymology The origin of a word or the history of how it came to be
Ampersand `&' ­ arguably more prominent in older texts
Nonstandard Allocated midsentence/nouns

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Androcentric A view that something is biased towards Man is primate
Lexical Same meaning, different connotations Spinster/bachelor
Overt marking Marking through affixation or Male nurse
Marked Semantic derogation express gender Waitress/stewardess
Feminine Use of female pronouns for objects
She's a pretty boat
Generic terms Generic…

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1586 William Bullockar's pamphlet for grammar
1604 First English dictionary
1623 Shakespeare published
1755 Samuel Johnson publishes his English Dictionary
1928 Oxford Dictionary published


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