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The transformation of arable or habitable land to desert, as by a change in
climate or destructive land use.

Soil erosion
River pollution
Depletion of underground water
Invasion of grassland by inedible shrub

Human Actions

Inappropriate numbers or types of animals

Trampling of soils

Reduction of vegetative…

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Desert lands are inhospitable, sometimes uninhabitable. 2/3 of arable
land in Africa at risk. Loss of arable land means increased poverty, famine.
Food insecurity leads to more environmental refugees and displaced
persons, more forced migrations.

Poor harvest ­ niger + vast crop failure due lack of moisture to hydrate,…

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Magic stones ­ contours

Aswan dam ­ maintains water to concentrate in an area for irrigation.

Drought resistant seeds ­ millet & GM crop ­ reliable food source

Planting trees ­ discourage soil erosion & veg. To feed cattle and livestock.

Deeper wells ­ however aquifers not sustainable



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