Describe and evaluate the behavioural approach to the explaining of phobias 12 mark essay plan

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Describe and evaluate the use of the behavioural approach to the
explaining phobias (12 marks)
A01
Mowrer proposed the `two process model'
o Learnt through classical conditioning
o Maintained through operant conditioning
Point 1 Acquisition by classical conditioning
Learnt by association
Watson and Raynor (1920) ­ Little Albert
o Aim: To see if they could teach a child a phobia
o Procedure: Was shown a variety of animals, including white rats, then
whenever he reached for the white rat a loud noise was made, after a while
they tested to see Albert's reaction to a white rat
o Results/conclusions: found he had a phobia of rats, even to animals with
similar characteristics
Point 2 Maintenance by operant conditioning
Operant conditioning takes place when behaviour is reinforced
The process of encouraging or establishing a belief or pattern or behaviour
Two types of reinforcement
o Positive reinforcement: individual gets something which is pleasant as a
result of performing a behaviour
o Negative reinforcement:
Something unpleasant stops as a result of performing a behaviour
An individual avoids a situation that is unpleasant, results in a
desirable consequence so the behaviour will be repeated
Mowrer whenever we avoid a phobic stimulus we successfully
escape the fear and anxiety we would of suffered if we'd remained
there
For example, avoiding the seaside (phobia of seagulls) as then they
don't have to experience the anxiety associated with it

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A02
Point 1 Good explanatory power
Mowrer's model is a good explanation of how phobias are acquired and maintained ­
leading onto therapies developed e.g.…read more

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