Describe and evaluate cultural variations of attachment 12 mark essay plan

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Describe and evaluate cultural variations of attachment (12 marks)
Point 1 Van Ijzendoorn study
Looked at the proportions of secure, insecure avoidant and insecure resistant
attachment across 8 countries.
Located 32 studies of attachment using strange situation
o 15 of these were in the USA
o Yielded results for 1,990 children
o Data of these were metaanalyse, results being combined and weighted for
sample size
o Although they didn't find significant differences between cultures they did
find significant differences within
Point 2 Other Research
An Italian Study
o Simonella et al (2014)
o Researchers assessed 76, 12 month year olds using strange situation
o Findings
50% were secure
36% insecure avoidant
This is a lower rate of secure attachment than has been found in
many studies
Suggest cultural changes can make a dramatic change to patterns of
secure and insecure attachment
This may because the number of mothers of very young children work
long hours and use professional childcare
Korean Study
o Jin et al (2012)
o Strange situation was used to assess 87 children and their attachment types
o Overall proportions of insecure and secure babies were similar to those
classified as insecurely
o However more of those classified as insecurely attached were resistant and
only one child was avoidant
Secure attachment seems to be the norm in a wide range of cultures, supporting
Bowlby's idea that attachment is innate and universal ­ this is the universal norm

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A02 Evaluation
Point 1 Large Samples
Van Ijzendoorn meta analysis there was a total of nearly 2000 babies and their
primary attachment figures
A strength of combining results from other countries is that you can end up with a
large samples ­ representative
Large samples increase internal validity by reducing the impact of anomalous results
caused by bad methodology or very unusual participants
Studies like Simonella et al and Jin et al had large comparison groups from previous
research, although their own samples were smaller…read more

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