Depth study - Germany and Nazi Germany

Whole of Germany, before, during and after ww2 

Also a little bit of the new world in there

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History revision year 10
Was the Weimar republic doomed from the start?
How did Germany emerge from defeat in WW1?
- Treaty of Versailles ­ admitting to all wrong doing and this meant they
owed a lot of money to other countries ­ most of the population felt
they received a harsh deal and didn't like their government for signing
it
- In debt due to owing other countries all that money
- Germany was only producing 50% of the food they were making before
the war, This meant people were starving and food prices were rising
- Spartacist uprising ­ January 1919, joined by rebel soldiers and sailors,
attempt to make country more communist ­ rebelled lead by Karl
Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg
- Kapp Putsch ­ March 1920, a rebellion led by Dr Wolfgang Kapp, aimed
to set up a new government as those involved were angry at the treaty
of Versailles. Was only defeated when the people of Germany strike.
- Red army ­ in 1920, after the failure of the Kapp putsch, a communist
paramilitary group called the red army, rebelled in the Ruhr
Strengths and weaknesses of the Weimar constitution
Aim of Weimar was to set up probably the most democratic system in the
world
Strengths of the Weimar republic:
- Universal suffrage ­ All men and women over 20 was given the right to
vote
- The chancellor needed to support of 50% of the Reichstag to govern
effectively ­ It means he hast to take into account everyone's view not
just one party
- Bill of rights ­ gave every German citizen freedom of speech and
religion and equality under law
- Proportional representation ­ everyone's vote counts
- Article 48 ­ a way of making a law quickly ­ good for an emergency

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Weaknesses of the Weimar republic:
- Proportional representation ­ means it is hard for tiny parties to get a
majority
- Article 48 ­ President did not need to agree with Reichstag to make a
law, supposed to be used in an emergency, but meant you could use it
too much and act too much like a dictator (von Hindenburg)
Problems Weimar had due to not paying the debt they owed
Hyperinflation (June 1921 ­ January 1924):
- Due to government printing out more money…read more

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Gustav Stresemann was in every government from 1923-1929 is
important because he supported conservative and this meant
conservative supporters would support Weimar too
Foreign Policy:
- The Locarno treaties meant people attacked Locarno, also Germany
says they won't change their borders by going to war with people this
meant Germany started accepting their neighbour and their neighbours
them
- The young plan ­ allowed Germany to pay less in reparations each year
and be secure they won't be invaded by France and Belgium
- Germany's…read more

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Furher ­ single leader with complete power, no democracy
- Social Darwinism ­ the Aryan race was superior and Jews were
`subhuman'
- Germany was in danger from communists and Jews
The appeal of the Nazis
In the 1920s, the Nazis aim was to appeal to everyone, the 25-point
programme had ideas that were:
- Socialists e.g.…read more

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How did the Nazis come to power?
By 1932 the Nazis were the largest party in Germany but didn't have the
majority yet in the Reichstag.…read more

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Von Papen who had replaced Bruning (who was the last democratic leader)
called another election so there would be a leading majority party
The election of November 1932
Von Papen didn't have a majority in the Reichstag; he was still dependent
upon Hindenburg's article 48 powers
The Nazis were starting to have financial trouble due to 3 elections and them
still not getting into power, they started to lose votes/support.…read more

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The Nazis blamed communists and used this as an excuse to introduce the
`emergency decree' and take over powers. They could also campaign for the
election in an atmosphere of panic.…read more

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How did Hitler have complete control over Germany by August 1934?
Night of the long knives
Hitler and other conservatives like Goring and Goebbels viewed Rohm as a
dangerous rival.…read more

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What was it like to live in Nazi Germany?
Religious beliefs
- The Nazis signed an agreement with the pope where the pope agreed
to stay out of politics if the Nazis left the church alone
- The Nazis set up a new church, the Reichskirche, under a pro-Nazi
bishop (Ludwig Muller) and tried to get protestants to join it
- Some people were too popular so the Nazis had to do what they said
for example Bishop Gaten of Munster ­ campaigned against euthanasia…read more

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Edelweiss Pirates ­ fewer working class teens ­ They opposed by
mocking Hitler youth and helping escaped prisoners ­ sometimes
arrested, sometimes ignored ­ ringleaders were executed
- The White rose ­ middle class uni - sent leaflets and graffiti around the
uni because they opposed the war and the mess murder of Jews ­ all
were caught and executed
Hitler youth
Many young people actually enjoyed the Hitler youth because all their friends
went, it did fun activities and they felt as if they…read more

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