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Attachment: Deprivation, Privation, Institutionalisation
Instiutionalisation: See question 9 markscheme June 2010
Privation: See question 8 markscheme Jan 2010
Outline Evaluation
Deprivation describes the breaking of an Both the findings of studies to both the
attachment bond which has been formed shortterm and longterm effects of
between caregiver and infant. deprivation can be questioned.
Research has looked into the effects of a Robertson and Robertson depended on a
shortterm separation between infant and small sample of children which makes their
caregiver as well as the effects of a very long results less generalisable. It has also been
term or permanent breaking of the bond. question whether the stages of the PDD
model are really so clear cut as they suggest
Robertson and Robertson identified the and whether they consistently appear in the
`Protest, Detachment, Depair' model of the order given.
effects of short term separation after filming
children who were having a shortterm There could also be an ethical issue in terms
separation through hospitalisation. The model of filming young children in distress.
suggests that the first reaction of the infants
was protest shown by crying etc. The The Bifulco study is correlational and there
second phase was one of detachment as the could be many more factors involved in
infant seemed to just get on with things, but causing the poor mental health of the
this was replaced by despair as the infant participants who were found to have
started to become increasingly unhappy at problems than their experience of deprivation.
their mother's continued absence. Also, the results obviously cannot be
generalised to men.
A study relating to longterm effects of a
permanent separation was carried out by The findings of the Robertson and Robertson
Bifulco et al. From a sample of 249 young study were applied by the Robertsons
women who had been permanently separated themselves, who reduced the problems
from their mothers at a young age, many caused by separation by familiarising the
were found to be suffering from depression infants beforehand with their new
and anxiety disorders, particularly if the environment and making sure their regular
separation was caused by the death of the routines were maintained.
The Bifulco study has contributed to an
understanding of the importance of having an
awareness of the background of those with
mental health issues.


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