Depression (PSYA4) - Full notes + Research

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  • Created on: 19-01-13 14:02
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Depression Revision
EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION
BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
GENETICS (McGuffin & Kendler)
BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS (Amine Hypothesis)
PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS
- PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES (Freud)
- COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THEORY (Seligman & Maier) ­ Learned
Helplessness and Attributional style
- BEHAVIOURAL THEORY (Lewinsohn)
-COGNITIVE THEORY (Beck)
THERAPIES FOR DEPRESSIONS
BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES
DRUGS (Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors & Tricyclic etc.)
ECT
PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES
CBT (done by Beck)
PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY (Freud's dream analysis etc. & IPT)

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION
Genetics
McGuffin = Found that MZ twins (identical) if one has unipolar
depression the chances are 46% the other twin getting it as well. This
stat is 60% in bipolar disorder.
Kendler = Idea of genetic predisposition to stress which was part of the
DIATHESIS STRESS MODEL. VIRGINIA TWIN STUDY.…read more

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However, research by Nolen-Hoeksema found no convincing link in
research done into a number of studies.
PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION
Psychoanalytic theories
MANY DIFFERENT THEORIES HOWEVER THEY ALL STATE THAT
`UNCONSCIOUS FORCES AND EXPERIENCES DURING EARLY
CHILDHOOD CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELPOMENT OF
DEPRESSION IN ADULT LIFE.'
Freud ­ Relates origin back to the oral stage of development.
Individuals whose needs are not met by parents during the oral stage
are inclined to become excessively dependent on other people.…read more

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It has been suggested by many including Coyne (1985) that depressed
people make it worse for themselves by alienating others.
-/+ Therefore as a result this theory of depression seems better at
explaining maintenance of depression but doesn't account for why
depression arose in the first place
+ This theory gives the opportunity for an individual to change his
ways.
- Seems far too simple to be 100% and cover all aspects of depression.…read more

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There is some research to support this theory; therapies aimed at
changing styles have shown to be effective.
+ Gives people an opportunity to change the way they think; it isn't
determinist.
Beck's Cognitive Theory
Beck ­ is a depression of thought rather than mood. The individual will
think about themselves, the world and the future in pessimistic terms.
People (who often suffer from bad childhood experiences) develop
negative schemas and negative automatic thoughts (NAT'S). These
thoughts arise spontaneously without deliberate choice.…read more

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A new drug has recently been discovered which originally was
supposed to have no side effects, however there are now links to
suicidal thoughts and tendency's because of the drug SSRI's.
SSRI's = Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors work in a similar way
to the other drugs, by preventing the reuptake of serotonin more of it
travel through the body (and not back) thus causing you to feel happier.…read more

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Thought catching
4) Cognitive restructuring and problem solving.
A therapist will try to challenge maladaptive thinking and give the
patient a chance to record all of their thoughts and feelings and slowly
go through them trying to alter the negative automatic thoughts the
client may originally have.
+ Numerous studies have shown that CBT is at least as effective if not
more effective than biological treatments than treating the acute stages
of depression and is particularly effective at preventing relapse.…read more

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Expensive
- Can become reliant on therapist
+/- `Very similar to CBT'
A HOLLISITC (ALL THERPIES) APPROACH IS MOST EFFECTIVE - DeRubeis…read more

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Mephestic

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