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Depression Revision

EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION

BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS

GENETICS (McGuffin & Kendler)
BIOCHEMICAL FACTORS (Amine Hypothesis)

PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS

- PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES (Freud)
- COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THEORY (Seligman & Maier) ­ Learned
Helplessness and Attributional style
- BEHAVIOURAL THEORY (Lewinsohn)
-COGNITIVE THEORY (Beck)

THERAPIES FOR DEPRESSIONS

BIOLOGICAL THERAPIES

DRUGS (Monoamine-oxidase inhibitors &…

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION

Genetics

McGuffin = Found that MZ twins (identical) if one has unipolar
depression the chances are 46% the other twin getting it as well. This
stat is 60% in bipolar disorder.

Kendler = Idea of genetic predisposition to stress which was part of the
DIATHESIS STRESS…

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depressed speculates that the ovarian hormones have a role to play.
However, research by Nolen-Hoeksema found no convincing link in
research done into a number of studies.


PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF DEPRESSION



Psychoanalytic theories

MANY DIFFERENT THEORIES HOWEVER THEY ALL STATE THAT
`UNCONSCIOUS FORCES AND EXPERIENCES DURING EARLY
CHILDHOOD CONTRIBUTE TO…

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alternatively that people's behavior in these situations does not elicit a
positive response.

- It has been suggested by many including Coyne (1985) that depressed
people make it worse for themselves by alienating others.
-/+ Therefore as a result this theory of depression seems better at
explaining maintenance of depression…

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+ There is some research to support this theory; therapies aimed at
changing styles have shown to be effective.
+ Gives people an opportunity to change the way they think; it isn't
determinist.

Beck's Cognitive Theory

Beck ­ is a depression of thought rather than mood. The individual will
think…

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A new drug has recently been discovered which originally was
supposed to have no side effects, however there are now links to
suicidal thoughts and tendency's because of the drug SSRI's.

SSRI's = Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors work in a similar way
to the other drugs, by preventing the reuptake…

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3) Thought catching
4) Cognitive restructuring and problem solving.

A therapist will try to challenge maladaptive thinking and give the
patient a chance to record all of their thoughts and feelings and slowly
go through them trying to alter the negative automatic thoughts the
client may originally have.

+ Numerous…

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- Expensive
- Can become reliant on therapist
+/- `Very similar to CBT'

A HOLLISITC (ALL THERPIES) APPROACH IS MOST EFFECTIVE - DeRubeis

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