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Demography
· Study of the population
· Whether a population is growing, declining or stable
is affected by four factors:
Births and immigration (increase the population)
Deaths and emigration (decrease the population)
Natural change (number of births minus the number of
deaths)
Net migration (number immigrating into a country minus the
number emigrating from it)…read more

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Births
Two measures of births
· The birth rate
Number of live births per 1,000 of the population per year
There has been a long-term decline in the birth rate
· The total fertility rate
Average number of children a woman will have during her
fertility years
· More women are remaining childless nowadays
· Women are having children later: the average age is now
almost 30…read more

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Reasons for fall in birth rate
Changes in position of women
· Better-educated women have more options: they can
choose a career rather than marriage and family
· Increased educational opportunities
· More women working
· Changes in the attitudes to family life and women's role
· Easier access to divorce
· Access to abortion and contraception…read more

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Reasons for fall in birth rate
Fall in the infant mortality rate
· IMR - number of infants who die before their first birthday,
per 1,000 babies born alive, per year
· Fallen greatly in the last century
· Reasons for the fall include:
Improved housing, sanitation, nutrition
Mother's increased knowledge of hygiene and child health
Improved health services for mothers and children
Medical factors such as mass immunisation, antibiotics, and
improved midwifery and obstetrics…read more

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Reasons for fall in birth rate
Children as an economic liability
· Until the late 19th Century, children were an economic
asset because they went to work from an early age
· Now they are an economic liability:
Laws banning child labour and introducing compulsory
schooling mean they remain economically dependent for
longer
Changing norms about children's right to a high standard of
living raises their cost…read more

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