Demographic Model

Gathered up some models and put then together.

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Hoyt Model
The Hoyt model is also known as a sector model. It is a model of urban land use proposed in
1939 by economist Homer Hoyt. The benefits of the application of this model include the
fact it allows for an outward progression of growth. As with all simple models of such
complex phenomena its validity is limited.
Physical features - physical features may restrict or direct growth along certain wedges
The growth of a sector can be limited by leapfrog land use

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Burgess Model
The Concentric zone model also known as the Burgess model is one of the earliest
theoretical models to explain urban social structures. It was created by sociologist Ernest
Burgess in 1924.
The zones identified are:
1. The center was the CBD
2. The transition zone of mixed residential and commercial uses or the Zone of
3. Working class residential homes (inner suburbs), in later decades called inner city or
Zone of independent working men's home
4.…read more

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Mann tried to apply the Burgess and Hoyt models to three industrial towns in England:
Huddersfield, Nottingham and Sheffield. His compromise model combined the ideas of
Burgess's concentric zones and Hoyts sectors. Four basic sectors are postulated: middle
class, lower middle class, working class, and lower working class. Each sector displays four
zones. In each case, there is the CBD, the transitional zone, a zone of smaller houses, and
the outermost zone made up of post-1918 housing.…read more

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Ullman and Harris set out to produce a more realistic model
The theory was formed based on the idea that people have greater movement due to
increased car ownership. This increase of movement allows for the specialization of regional
centers (e.g. heavy industry, Business Park). The model is suitable for the big and expanding
cities. The number of nuclei around which the city expands, depends upon the situational as
well as historical factors. Multiple nuclei develop because: 1). certain activities require
specialized facilities e.g.…read more


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