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Name of study: The Relation of Eye Movements during Sleep and Dream Activity: An Objective Method for the Study of
Dreaming.


Author(s): Dement & Kleitman


Approach: Biological Approach
Background information (what theories/issues of previous research is the study based on?)

REM ­ often referred to as paradoxical sleep.
At this…

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Easy to replicate, test reliability and test consistency of the Low in ecological validity.
results.


Describe the sample and how it was gathered:

9 adults were used.
7 male, 2 female.
5 studied intensively and 4 used to confirm findings.


Outline the procedure:
The participants were studied under controlled laboratory…

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The four patterns that prompted an awakening were:
(a) mainly vertical eye movements
(b) mainly horizontal eye movements
(c) both vertical and horizontal eye movements
(d) very little or no eye movement.


List the different conditions: (if any were used)

They had a control group whereby there was 20 uninformed…

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Hailing a car from the let
Mixture of Horizontal and Vertical 21 dreams Looking for something or someone
Talking to a group of people


What kind of data was gathered? (qualitative/quantitative)

Quantitative: Number of dreams recalled.
Qualitative: Descriptions of the dreams recalled.


What were the conclusions of the study?

The…

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questions. This could make the findings more valid due to
more information.




Ecological validity

It is low in ecological validity. The participants weren't in their usual sleep environment as they slept in a sleep lab. They
were woken several times throughout the night and asked to recall their dreams. They…

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Give two alternative ways of conducting the study and suggest any changes that might occur in the findings and
any implications of the changes (e.g. strengths or limitations)


Problem Change Implications Effects on Findings
It is low in ecological To improve the Higher in ecological Low levels of control Participants…

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