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Actus Reus
The actus reus is the physical element of a crime. It can be:
- An act,
- A failure to act (an omission), or
- A "state of affairs".
The act or omission must be voluntary on the part of the
defendant.…read more

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Mens Rea
This is the mental element of an offence. Each offence has
its own mens rea, except from strict liability offences.
There are different levels of mens rea (from most serious
to least serious):
1. Intention (aka. "specific intention")
2. Recklessness
3. Negligence
4. Knowledge…read more

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Intention ("specific intent")
"A decision to bring about, in so far as it lies within the
accused's power, [the prohibited consequence], no matter
whether the accused desired that consequence of his act
or not." ­ Mohan (1975)…read more

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Recklessness (Basic Intent)
The defendant must realise that there is a risk of the
consequences occurring and decides to take that risk. ­
Cunningham (1957)…read more

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Negligence
A failure to meet the standards of the reasonable man. ­
Adomako (1994)…read more

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