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Laminar Flow also known as streamlined flow, describes the different layers of fluid, flowing at
different speeds but not crossing each other path's.
Turbulent Flow describes different layers of fluid flowing at different speeds and crossing each
other's paths, mixing, and forming vortices.
Viscosity Is the measure of difficulty associated with moving adjacent layers of fluid past each
other. If it is Laminar flow, then the as the rate of flow increases the viscosity decreases. If it is
turbulent flow, then the predictions of rate flow become difficult if not impossible.
Upthrust Is the force acting on a body, fully or partially immersed in fluid. It acts vertically upwards
to the body. The magnitude of the upthrust U is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.
Viscous Drag Is the force that acts against the motion of a body as it moves through a fluid or the
motion of a fluid as it flows through a pipe or around an object. The magnitude of viscous drag felt by
the body depends on the size and shape of the body, the viscosity of the fluid and
Terminal Velocity Is the maximum velocity reached by a body, when moving through a fluid. As the
body accelerates from zero, the terminal velocity increases until it balances all the forces acting in the
direction of motion. The resultant velocity is zero, so therefore the velocity doesn't change.
Properties of Materials
Plastic deformation describes a change in shape in a material which is permanent. When the
deforming load is removed, the material does not return to its original shape.
Elastic deformation - describes a change in shape in a material which is not permanent. When the
deforming load is removed, the material returns to its original shape.
Brittle describes a material which can break without suffering from plastic deformation. E.g. cast
Ductile describes a material which can easily undergo plastic deformation by being pulled into
wires. E.g. copper.
Malleable describes a material which can easily undergo plastic deformation by being hammered
into shape. E.g. soft Iron.
Stiff describes a material that suffers little indentation when subjected to large loads. E.g. tensile
Hard describes a material which can resist surface indentation. E.g. chromium.
Tough describes a material that absorbs a lot of energy, and can undergo large plastic deformation
without breaking. Tough materials can absorb energy from a sudden impact. E.g. 0.8% carbon steel.
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Stress Strain Graph
Limit of Proportionality The stress up to which stress is directly proportional to strain.
Elastic Limit The stress up to which the material returns to its original dimension when the
deforming load is removed.
Yield Point The point beyond which plastic deformation occurs.
Ultimate Tensile Stress The maximum stress a material can withstand.
Breaking Stress The stress at which the material breaks.…read more