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2 types of cultures:

Cultural when assumptions are made about one culture based on the
norms of another culture.

This tends to be a problem in psychological theory because researchers in
psychology are predominantly American; with Rosenzweig (1992)
estimating that 64% of the worlds 56,000 psychological researchers are

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`Psychology' has traditionally meant Western Psychology, with the assumption that
psychological knowledge can be applied to the whole of humankind.

But psychology practiced in other parts of the world has created the need for an alternative
view of human behaviour based on indigenous cultures.

Most of this research comes from…

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The Social Exchange Theory states that we try to maximise `rewards'
(affection, sex) and minimise `costs' in a relationship. This theory assumes that for a
relationship to work a person must feel the rewards outweigh the costs.

The Equity Theory expands on this, stating that people expect to receive rewards…


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