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Cultural Factors influencing Gender
Margaret Mead

Social groups in Papua New Guinea: expression of gender roles in different ways.

Arapesh: men and women were gentle.
Mundugumar: men and women were both aggressive.
Tchambuli: women were dominant and aggressive, men were caring and gentle.

Mead later changed her view…

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Significant variation that Mead describes as `cultural relativism'.
Historical changes in domestic duties between sexes.
o The gender gap is decreasing: supports the role of changing social influences across

Issues into cultural research

Imposed emic and etic:

An etic construct is a theoretical idea that is assumed to apply…

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Fagot et al.
o 4 year old child given gender labelling task to see if they had acquired gender
o Children in traditional families showed gender labelling earlier and showed more
stereotyping than egalitarian families.

Social desirability in parent for parental type?
Hawthorne Effect (changed behaviour under…

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Children are much harsher when it comes to gender-role behaviour. If you do not express the right type
of behaviour it is likely that you are to be shunned for it.

When children engage in socially appropriate gender roles, they are rewarded by their peers;
however, when children engage…


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