Crowded coasts class notes 2

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
Lesson 1: Who is competing for coastal land?
Development and use of the coast
· Available space is decreasing.
· Increasing development leads to an increasing demand for space.
· Competition for space leads to conflict as available space decreases
Competition for space
· Wide variety of environments in coastal zones e.g. rocky cliffs, sandy beaches, dense forests etc.
· Each environment attracts a range of different users, some of whom may be in competition
· Different stakeholders use different parts of the coastal zone
· STAKEHOLDER = individuals, groups or organisations that have an interest in the development or
outcomes of a particular project. They may be involved financially or emotionally.
1) Economic stakeholder
Tourist industry
Fishing industry
Port authorities
Mineral industry
2) Social stakeholders
Special interest groups
3) Political stakeholders

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
4) Environmental stakeholders
English Nature
National Trust
Economic benefit vs Environmental cost
· Development brings in economic benefits but has lots of costs, especially environmental ones
· In the UK and other developed countries there is a requirement to undertake the following
before any proposals for development are given the go ahead:
a) Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) ­ decides if a project is economically viable
b) Environmental impact assessment ­ carried out when there is a risk that natural
ecosystems…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
the lines of a scallop dredger. Female edible crabs travel far along the coast to Spawning
grounds and it is important to protect their migration routes from damage.
5) Diving and angling
Diving is a low-impact activity and generates around £87,000 a year, mainly through dive
companies in Torbay, Exmouth and Lyme Regis visiting the wreck sites and rocky reef area.
Angling trips are made across the bay for species such as cod and bass.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
· Tourism appeal
· Increased water temperature due to El Niño or climate change can cause bleaching
· Disease or predators (e.g.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
Coastal Where? What happened? Pollution caused? Solutions
case study
Oil spill Gulf of Mexico Explosion on · 42,000 gallons of · Skimmer ships
drilling platform in oil leaked collecting oil from
the ocean caused · Nowhere for the the surface of the
oil to leak into the birds to feed or water
sea in April 2011.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
Aquaculture is the commercial farming of freshwater or saltwater organisms. When done
properly, some forms of aquaculture can take pressure off of the wild fisheries and provide
needed income to coastal communities. It is required because fishery catches are declining. Over
the last 20 years, world fish stocks have fallen by 1/3 because of overfishing. In 2000, 41% of all
fish consumed came from aquaculture.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
· Lots of new people moving in
· No longer peaceful
· Depletion of natural resources
Case study: Dibden Bay
Why is Southampton Water suitable for industry?
Sheltered from storms of the English Channel
Deep water suitable for large ships
Flat land
What is being proposed at Dibden Bay?
The port at Southampton is the UK's second busiest container port.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
The cliffs are all made of soft, incoherent rocks ­ mainly boulder clay
The coast is very exposed ­ approaching waves have a very long fetch
The waves are mainly destructive
Most of the material eroded from the cliffs is washed out to sea, the rest is moved by
longshore drift
Coastline is threatened by further sea level rise
Lesson 6: Increasing risks ­ coastal flooding
What is causing sea levels to rise?
· Thermal expansion
· Increased rainfall
· Melting ice…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
· Power cuts · Infrastructure damaged
· Transport links ruined · Loss of money and business
· Massive insurance costs · Political centre
· Loss of jobs · Death
What were the effects of the UK storm surge in 1953?
· Occurred 31st
Jan ­ 1st Feb
· Combination of weather and tidal conditions caused an extreme storm surge
· 300 people died in the UK and 1,800 in the Netherlands
Causes Impacts Solutions
· Deep area of low pressure · Homes…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsFebruary/March 2015
· Heavy investment to protect the coastline and tourist industry
· £62 million spent on a new sea wall
· New sea wall designed to deflect and absorb wave energy
· Protects 15,000 homes and businesses
Case study: Abbott's hall farm, Essex ­ managed retreat
· Abbott's Hall Farm, Blackwater estuary, managed retreat was implemented in 2002
· Five breaches were made in the embankments allowing sea water to cover the 80 hectares of
· This will create and expand salt…read more


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