Crowded coasts class notes 1

My class notes for the first few weeks of the Crowded Coasts topic.

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  • Created on: 14-02-15 18:56
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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
Lesson 1: What is a coast?
Coast = the part of the land most affected by its proximity to the sea, and the part of the ocean
most affected by its proximity to land.
Coastal zones
· "Zone of transition"
· The coastline is the frontier between the land and the sea.
· The coast is on either side of the coastline in 2 zones: the onshore zone and the offshore zone.
1) Onshore zone = extends up to 60km inland.
2) Offshore zone = reaches as far out as the Economic Exclusion Zone (EEZ) which is 370.4km
out to sea. The coastal state has the rights over all natural resources of the water and the
sea bed.
Importance of coastal zones
· Coastal zones are hazardous ­ rapid erosion and flooding can threaten lives and property.
· Coastal zones change ­ both long term (rising sea levels) and short term (storms) factors
influence this.
· Coastal zones support diverse ecosystems ­ sand dunes, coral reefs, bird sanctuaries.
·Coastal zones encourage human settlement and economic activity ­ half of the world's
population lives within 60km of a coastline.
Nature of coasts

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
Lesson 2: What are the key coastal features?
Coastal systems
The main components of a coastal system are:
1) Fluvial
2) Sub-aerial
3) Coastal
4) Marine
All components are closely linked, meaning that a change in one of them will affect them all.
A systems approach is used by geographers to help explain natural phenomena. It is a way of
analysing relationships between elements in the natural world in terms of inputs, transfers and
outputs of both energy and matter.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
The coastal system is open because there are inputs and outputs of both water and energy. In a
closed system, there would be no inputs or outputs.
Cliffs
Cliff face = the top and vertical sides of the cliff
Cliff foot = the bottom of a cliff where it meets the sea or beach
Erosion
· Abrasion = Rocks, pebbles and sand thrown against cliffs by waves. The most rapid type of
erosion.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
Negative sea level change (isostatic
and/or eustatic change) leave former
wave cut platforms above sea level as
raised beaches.
Lesson 3: How does geology impact the
coastline?
Lithology = the mechanical and chemical
properties of rocks
· Coherent rocks = with materials
strongly bonded and resisting erosion,
weathering and mass movement. E.g.
igneous (granite) and metamorphic
(slate), as well as some sedimentary
(chalk).
· Incoherent rocks = weakly bonded
structures which have little resistance to erosion, weathering and mass movement. E.g.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
Planform of coastline
The direction in which rocks run in relation to the coast influences the planform (view looking
down from above).
· Accordant/Pacific coasts
Coastlines where the principal rock outcrops run parallel to the cost
Often produce straight coastlines
· Discordant/Atlantic coasts
Coastlines where the principal rock outcrops at the coast
Varied planform due to resistant and less-resistant rocks forming headlands and bays
Caves, arches, stacks and stumps
1.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
2) Longshore drift continues in the direction of the prevailing wind. The waves deposit
material in the shallow water, creating a new strip of land.
3) A change of wind direction creates a curved end to the spit. Water trapped behind the
new land becomes a salt marsh. Material is deposited, building up the land, as a result of
reduced wave energy.
4) An example of a spit is Spurn Head.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
3) Sheltered inlets ­ shelter ships and provide suitable land for docks. Larger settlements
develop to accommodate the shipping trade.
4) Flood/storm protection ­ mangroves/reefs are a natural form of coastal protection.
5) Recreation/tourism ­ coastal areas are popular tourist destinations. Water based
recreation is fashionable. Coral reefs, sand dunes and beaches draw people in.
6) Employment opportunities ­ in all sectors, particularly tourism.…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
· 4000 more jobs in the service sector
1999-2003
· Growing population due to migration
How does it appeal to a range of tourists? What is being done for the future?
· Older people ­ it's relaxing, there's less · Language school and Bournemouth
emphasis on amusement arcades International Centre to accommodate for
· International students ­ there's 2 international students and migrants
universities, good nightlife · 99% of residential property is being built on
· Families ­ affordable, fairgrounds, brownfield sites…read more

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GeographyCrowded CoastsJanuary/February 2015
The Butler model
1) Exploration ­ small number of visitors
attracted by natural beauty or characteristics.
Few tourist facilities exist.
2) Involvement ­ limited involvement by
local population to provide some tourist
facilities. Tourist seasons are established.
3) Development ­ large numbers of tourists
arrive. Control is passed to external
organisations.…read more

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