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Critically consider two ore more physiological treatments of schizophrenia
One psychological treatment of schizophrenia is FIT also known as family intervention therapy this is aimed to reduce high levels of expressed emotions
within the family also known as ee in order to create a more caring and co operative relationship within the family. Leff said that ee consisted of critical
comments, over involvement, lack of affection, lack of trust and hostility which fit aims to reduce. FIT consists of three stages which are talk, training and
psycho education. Training is when the families of the patient with schizophrenia are taught about the mental illness and how to notice signs of relapses and
to learn how to cope with living with a schizophrenic. Talk is when the patient and the family sit down and talk about their feeling about handling the mental
disorder and any problem they are facing. Psycho education is when the family of the schizophrenic is given leaflets etc... About the symptoms of
schizophrenia and facts on the mental disorder itself.
Evidence to increase the credibility of FIT is research conducted by Goldstein in 1978 that had 96 schizophrenics and had them placed in two groups. One
group were only on moderate drugs and the other were receiving FIT with their current moderate drug, it was found that those taking both had a relapse rate
of 0% whilst taking FIT on its own had a relapse rate of 14%. This shows that FIT is effective on it own but is even more highly effective when taken with
moderate drugs. However it can be said that Goldstein study lack temporal validity as it was conducted when the DSM 11 was in use and we are now
currently using the DSM V, this can effect the findings as the DSM 11 was not very strict with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and some had schizophrenic
like disorders such as depression therefore some of Goldstein participants may not even have been schizophrenics. Also the moderate drugs used at
the time may not have been as effective as now as we now have medical advancements. The study is ethical as all the patient who were on drugs was
taking there prescribed treatment which didn't place them in any harm.
Nonetheless, Goldstein findings have indicated appropriate measure. For example, the idea of using FIT is appropriate as compared to biological treatments,
like chemotherapy and ECT it has less much risk attached to it so it will not make the patient condition any worse. Also the involvement of the family is very
vital as it can also help encourage medicine complaisance of the patient and allows psychological causes to be addressed. However the idea of taking FIT
with moderate drugs as may not be appropriate for sever cases of schizophrenia such as catatonic and paranoid schizophrenia where hospitalization need to
be taken place in order to reduce the severity of the patient. In addition to this FIT takes a lot of time which means it is time consuming which is not really
beneficial also it cost a lot of money so not many can afford this treatment. Therefore FIT may not be as appropriate as first anticipated.
In terms of effectiveness, Goldstein study clearly shows the effectiveness of FIT especially when taken with moderate drugs as it gives a zero
relapse rate so it is therefore very effective. This can be supported by Pharoah et al study in 2003 which conducted a Meta analysis who also found that FIT
is highly effective when taken with moderate drugs. However it is important to consider that FIT alone is not good enough but needs to be taken with
moderate drugs in order to get a better result.
However, contradictory findings from Hogarty on 103 schizophrenics over a period of two years found that FIT with moderate drugs was indeed effective
supporting Goldstein findings as he found that when both were taken together there was a relapse rate of 25% and when FIT was taken on it own there
was a relapse rate of 33% which clearly shows that FIT and moderate drugs together is highly effective even though there wasn't a zero % relapse rate.
This shows that possibly medication is not more influential than Psycho education, like Goldstein suggested, especially as psycho education reduced
relapse rates by 33%. Psycho education would also be more appropriate as it is non-invasive method, whereby the patient's physical well being is not being
compromised. It is important to note that Hogarty conducted his study over a longer period of time than Goldstein, which may indeed explain the differences
in relapse rates; it could be that patients in Goldstein's study were in remission during the course of the study. This increases the internal validity in Hogarty
Another psychological treatment for schizophrenia is CBT also known as cognitive behavioural therapy. Where rational thoughts and beliefs are challenged
through belief modification where the patient is taught strategies to cope with their delusions and hallucinations and avoid interpreting them into negative
To strengthen the credibility of CBT being a valid treatment for schizophrenia, Bradshaw conducted a case study with American women with undifferentiated
schizophrenia, and found that with regular CBT sessions over a duration of three years her symptoms were becoming less severe and improvements in
her functioning were noticed, this shows that CBT is an effective treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However this case study lacks population
validity as the researcher only studied one person therefore it cannot be generalised especially to patients with severe cases of schizophrenia such as
catatonic, and it will be harder to treat negative symptoms such as affective flattening. therefore CBT is only effective for positive symptoms.
In terms of appropriateness CBT is just means by which symptoms of schizophrenia can be improved. Therefore, for more severe cases, it may not be
as appropriate as the patients may not have the ability to gain an insight into their condition. In terms of effectiveness, it is effective of use din conjunction
to medication, as with other psychological treatments, being especially effective for type one schizophrenia. However it is important to note that research
by Turkington et al has found that CBT to be effective for type two schizophrenia, showing that it could be effective against negative symptoms.
Overall, different types of schizophrenia will have different causes, and so different treatments. In this way, individual differences must be acknowledged,
as well as an interaction between biological and psychological causes and treatments, to gain a more holistic view of the patient and their condition.