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Ad hominem => when an argument tries to get you to dismiss a counter argument or accept a
conclusion based on the good or bad qualities of the person arguing rather than the
Ambiguous => can mean more than one thing and it's not clear which is meant or…

Page 2

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Argument => something that tries to make the reader accept a conclusion with at least one
Assertion => a conclusion that isn't supported by any reason.
Assumption => an unstated reason that is needed for the argument to work.
Begging the question => if an argument is begging the…

Page 3

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Conflation => a type of flaw where two words or concepts are you used as if they mean the
same thing when they actually have different meanings.
Conflict => two sources or claims that disagree with each other. ­inconsistent.
Confusing cause and effect => when an argument reverses a cause…

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Credibility => how believable someone or something is.
Corroboration- two sources agree
Reputation ­ opinion that people have of someone.
Ability to perceive ­ how well someone was able to witness an event
Bias ­ irrational preference for a particular side of an argument
Vested interest ­ if someone will…

Page 5

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False dichotomy => an argument presents its conclusion as the best option by only discussing
a limited range of choices.
Flaw => mistake in the reasoning used to link an argument's reasons to its conclusion.
General principle => how we should behave.
Hasty generalisation => using a claim about a…

Page 6

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Plausibility => how reasonable a claim is or how likely an outcome is.
Primary evidence => first- hand evidence which comes directly from an eyewitness.
Reason => part of an argument that aims to persuade you that the conclusion is true. An
argument must have at least one reason.

Page 7

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Slippery slope => a flaw which says that a small event will cause an extreme result but gives us
no reasons to accept that the event and the result are properly linked.
Straw person => when an argument misrepresents or distorts a counter- argument to make
it easier to dismiss.…

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