critical thinking terminology

all the terminology to do with critcal thinking for as.

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  • Created by: olivia
  • Created on: 06-06-11 17:02
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Ad hominem => when an argument tries to get you to dismiss a counter argument or accept a
conclusion based on the good or bad qualities of the person arguing rather than the
Ambiguous => can mean more than one thing and it's not clear which is meant or intended.
Analogy => comparison that tries to persuade you that if you accept a claim about one of the
things being compared, you must also accept the same claim about the other thing being
compared. Parallel case.
Appeal => part of an argument that tries to persuade you that a conclusion is true without
using rational reasons.
Authority- refers to the opinion of the expert or someone in charge to justify a
Emotion- makes you feel a certain way
History- accept something because its happened in the past and it will also happen
again in the future
Popularity- lots of people believe it so it must be true
Tradition- it's been done like this for years so we should keep on doing it

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Argument => something that tries to make the reader accept a conclusion with at least one
Assertion => a conclusion that isn't supported by any reason.
Assumption => an unstated reason that is needed for the argument to work.
Begging the question => if an argument is begging the question you have to accept the
conclusion before you can accept the reasons.
Belief => something that someone thinks is true.
Circular argument => an argument where the conclusion repeats one of the reasons.…read more

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Conflation => a type of flaw where two words or concepts are you used as if they mean the
same thing when they actually have different meanings.
Conflict => two sources or claims that disagree with each other. ­inconsistent.
Confusing cause and effect => when an argument reverses a cause and its effects, saying that
the effect brought about the cause.
Confusing necessary and sufficient conditions=> when an argument treats necessary
conditions as sufficient conditions and vice versa.…read more

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Credibility => how believable someone or something is.
Corroboration- two sources agree
Reputation ­ opinion that people have of someone.…read more

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False dichotomy => an argument presents its conclusion as the best option by only discussing
a limited range of choices.
Flaw => mistake in the reasoning used to link an argument's reasons to its conclusion.
General principle => how we should behave.
Hasty generalisation => using a claim about a few things to support a conclusion for
Hypothetical reasoning => a claim saying that if one thing happens, then something else will
happen as a result.
Imply => unstated claim.…read more

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Plausibility => how reasonable a claim is or how likely an outcome is.
Primary evidence => first- hand evidence which comes directly from an eyewitness.
Reason => part of an argument that aims to persuade you that the conclusion is true. An
argument must have at least one reason.
Reasoning from wrong actions => tu quoque and two wrongs don't make a right flaws. An
argument defends an action by saying that the same action has also been done by other
people.…read more

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Slippery slope => a flaw which says that a small event will cause an extreme result but gives us
no reasons to accept that the event and the result are properly linked.
Straw person => when an argument misrepresents or distorts a counter- argument to make
it easier to dismiss.
Sufficient => enough for something to happen.
Sweeping generalising => when an argument uses a claim about many things to support a
conclusion about one individual case.…read more

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