Revision notes for Edexcel A2 Psychology (Unit 3 - Section A)

Includes notes on:

  • Laboratory experiments
  • Field experiments
  • Yarmey (2004)
  • Field studies
  • SLT
  • SFP and labelling
  • The media
  • TEPs
  • AMPs
  • Loftus and Palmer (1974)
  • Yuille and Cutshall (1986)
  • Is eyewitness testimony reliable?
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Laboratory Experiments

Laboratory experiments look for causeandeffect relationships by controlling as much as possible,
implementing an artificial task in an artificial and controlled environment. Everything is kept as identical as
possible, except for the independent variable (IV) which is manipulated in order to see the effect that it has

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Field Experiments

Field experiments are based in real situations. They have all the features of an experiment with the
manipulation of an IV to see the effect that it has on the DV but it all happens in a natural environment.
They still aim to find causeandeffect conclusions.

The use…

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To look at the effect of being part of a field experiment related to eyewitness recall and photo
identification, and how a disguise would affect retrieval. He also wanted to see if instructions given before
recall to review the incident would affect identification and to see the effect that…

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There is reliability because the results support those of the metaanalysis of Haber and Haber (2001).

It was in the pps natural environment ­ they were going about their normal business when approached
and this suggests that it has ecological validity.

Controls over the conditions means that it is replicable…

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Field studies are not experiments. They don't study a causeandeffect relationship and they don't
manipulate an IV to see the effect that it has on a DV.

Rather they use a real life environment and a real life event and situation.

They tend to produce qualitative data but they can…

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Bandura's Social Learning Theory (SLT) describes and explains criminal behaviour in terms of modelling. It
means that behaviour is observed through watching others (this can be through the media) and then
replicated by the observer.

Four cognitive processes are required for us to do this:

1) Attention ­ we must…

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Bandura, Ross & Ross ­ children copied aggressive models, reproducing verbal/physical aggression towards
a BoBo doll and were more likely to copy a model if it was the same gender as them.

Williams et al ­ the introduction of broadcast TV to a remote community caused a significant increase in…

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Stereotyping means thinking of a whole group as having certain characteristics and then using evidence
from one member and applying it to all the people from that group.

Labelling links stereotyping ­ labels come from stereotypes. Labelling comes from a majority group who
consider that a minority group is inferior…

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Evidence of the SFP can come from Rosenthal and Jacobson, even though it is about education and not
specifically to do with crime ­ they told teachers that certain pupils were about to blood on the basis of a
test but they picked the students at random. Those labelled as…

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There is a lot of research evidence to support both of them (SLT ­ Bandura, Ross & Ross, SFP ­ Rosenthal
and Jacobson)

A variety of methods have been used to test them

They are both nurture based


SLT considers reinforcement whereas SFP does not.

The basis of…


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