Slides in this set
Used in prisons and community-based projects to
encourage pro-social behaviour.
Based on the principles of operant conditioning, they
involve imposing a system of rewards that can be gained
if desired behaviour is performed.
Prison management draws up a list of appropriate
behaviours and if the offender complied they receive a
The offender can then exchange the tokens for rewards
(discussed with the offender). It is important that the
rewards are things the offender wants, or the programme
will not be successful.…read more
Original Token Economy Programmes were
seen as rehabilitative technique that could be
used to encourage law abiding behaviour.
Today, they are seen as a way of controlling
behaviour, rather than as a solution to crime.
The system is useful in prisons as it provides a
legitimate way of gaining access to privileges
that's would have previously been denied or
gained illegitimately. It also provides positive
interaction between offenders and prison staff.…read more
Hobbs and Holt
Studies in prisons, with 3 different
conditions. They found that out of the
conditions the ones who were taking part
in token economy programmes, behaviour
improved significantly. Some groups
behaviour improved by up to 94%!…read more
Evaluation- Token Economy
No specialist training is required for Issues with learned helplessness, they
token economy (however it's cannot gain anything, so have no
suggested as staff can abuse the choice but to comply, and miss the real
system). meaning of taking part.
It gives prisoners control over their Can be seen as violating human rights,
behaviour. as it patronises adults.
Improves relationships between Validity can be questioned, as the
prisoners and prison staff, which also improving relationship between staff
promotes pro-social behaviour. and prisoners may cause the approved
You can generalise this to the outside
world, as it isn't how society works.
It needs careful monitoring as rewards
may become a form of contra band.
Participants must be willing to change
and gain rewards.…read more
A cognitive behavioural technique based on a
model by Ray Novoco. He describes anger as a
strong emotion with physiological, behavioural
and cognitive elements.
Anger management teaches relaxation
techniques to deal with the physiological
response to anger (e.g. increased heart rate),
cognitive restructuring to retrain though patterns,
and time out or assertiveness training to deal
with the behavioural element of anger.
There are three steps...…read more