Crimean war notes

detailed notes for the crimean war with high lights all info taken from school and textbook so all accurate

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Crimean war
Origins of war.
How its remembered?
It is renowned for military incompetence, where the ordinary soldiers far out shined the
administrative s and higher ups. It has one of the biggest military disasters. It built and
destroyed many peoples reputations. Its one of the first wars with photographs and newspaper
reports.
Causes of Crimean war
like most wars the Crimean war was about power,control and fear. Over the last 50 years
Russia had been expanding rapidly. This advancement slowly threatened British interest, as
they got further into Afghanistan it threatened Britains trade route to India. The tsar of Russia
Nicholas 1 wanted to take the Turkish empire and divide it up. The tsar saw the Turkish
empire as weak and they wanted an ice free port for it fleet with access to the Mediterranean.
Britain did not want this to happen, Britain need the area to remain friendly for their trade
route. It started getting complicated when Russia claimed it was protecting the Greek
orthodox Christians in the Turkish empire. Even though it was predominantly Muslim. Then
France and Russia had a dispute over who had church of the holy sepulchre (in Turkish empire)
because France wanted Christians and Russia wanted the Greek orthodox. The Turkish sultan
(leader) sided with France. That align France and Britain against Russia. Prince Menshikov
went to get better terms. But when he arrived the Turks were putting down a revolt. So
Menshikov argued Russia had to protect all Christians. He ordered the Turkish withdraw. He
argued that unless they did what they wanted Russian troops would move into Moldavia and
Wallachia. These were not in the empire but next to it on the river Danube. While this was
occurring Britain was telling the sultan to reject Russians offers. When Britain and France
learned of the threat they decided to intervene. The British and French moved in a fleet to the
black sea to show they were with the Turkish. The tsar moved in anyway. So on 5 October the
Sultan declared war. 5 April British troops arrived at Gallipoli (in Turkish empire) and met with
the French. They moved to Constantinople and then move to Scutari. By may Lord Raglan
(British commander) and the French and Turkish commanders agreed to move to Varna. They
arrived late may by mid June the Russians were retreating to the safety of the river Pruth.
They allied governments decided they needed to take the russian port of Sebastopol and the
russian fleet need destroying. British people wanted the war to continue, so to pay for it they
increased tax and by 23rd of June under Raglan's orders they invaded Crimea.
Who reported on the Crimean war
Roger Fenton
Roger Fenton was a photographer of the war. He was employed not to show the horrors of the
war instead he was to glorify the soldiers. And celebrated any British victory. He used the war
to make money. He couldn't take amazing pictures as he could only take still photos.
William Russell
He was a correspondent for the times. The times sent Russell to report on the war without the
permission of the army or government. But due to him it exposed the terrible conditions of the
war. Due to his frankness it swayed public opinions and shocked England they now sided for
reforms. But he was anti-turkish and anit-french so extremely bias views. All his stories cant
be verified. He reported on battles he was not present on.
It wasn't just Fenton and Russel reporting on the war, most people on the front lines kept
journals and some were published this effected public opinions. The times it self on its own
sales shot up.
Battle of Alma 22 September 1854
instead of attacking the British and French, Menshikov took the high group south of the river
Alma. So the British and French halted their troops near the water and waited for the battle

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This is when cholera took its toll. The French commander before the battle went to talk
tactics but Lord Raglan underestimated the enemy and didn't listen. He carried out no
reconnaissance and therefore had no idea of Russia's strength. But the Russians also
underestimated their enemy and was setting up parties to watch the defeat of the allies. The
french started the attack, but were soon pinned down. The British with out any plan, decided
on a full frontal assault, uphill. Surprisingly they won.…read more

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One of the first war
correspondents.
Roger Fenton.
Remember his purpose was to make profit. There market was soldiers and their
families this will effect his pictures. He was also severely limited he was meant
to report the war, but by Victorian decree no dead bodies be shown and cant
take pictures of moving images this becomes difficult. One his most famous
pictures was valley of the shadow of death which was a valley of empty shells
and bullets.…read more

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Infections were a big
risk and wounds could only be stitched up and that's it.
sanitation
one of the biggest issues face by any army is providing clean water and sanitation. Due to
weather and lack of clean clothes etc. men were extremely prone to disease. The hospitals
suffered the same issues. Due to lack of washing facilities they had lice, typhus,dysentery and
cholera. 16,000 out 18,000 dead, died from disease.…read more

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Nightingale actually met. Mary was not hired by Nightingale. Many argue this was due to
racism but you cant judge Nightingale personally as racism was part of Victorian England it
was viewed as normal. Many preferred to see Seacole instead of Nightingale. This is because
Mary used more herbal remedies and could help bones heal instead of amputating them like
Nightingale often did. William Russell was a massive supporter of Mary.…read more

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Cardwell Army Reforms 1870-71after reports like the Mcneill tulloch report the politicians
found it vital to create army reforms. This were made by secretary for war Edward Cardwell.
These measures were introduced , some military departments were combined under one roof
which made the war office. Battalions of certain districts were split in half so why half were
serving over seas the other half trained. Time spent over seas by a single soldier before they
had leave was decreased from 1 year to 6 months.…read more

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