Crime and Deviance Table of Sociologists UPDATED

Just a few sociologists that i missed ... but still in the mahoosive table :)

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CRIME AND DEIVIANCE ­ Table of Sociologists.
Sociologist. What they said.
Heidensohn. - Women's behaviour is conformist.
- Control at home. ­ housework and childcare impose severe restrictions
on women's time.
- Control in public. ­ women fear the threat of male violence against them.
- Control at work. ­ kept in place by male supervisors and managers.
- Females are treated more harshly than males when they deviate from
gender norms e.g. double standards. ­ courts punish girls for premature or
promiscuous sexuality activity.
- 4/5 convicted offenders in England and Wales are male.
- By 40 9% of females had a conviction against 32% of males.
- Males are more likely to be reoffenders.
Pollak. Men have a protective attitude towards women and so the criminal justice
system is more lenient with women.
Women are naturally better at concealing crime.
Police and courts treat females more leniently and that police culture is
`paternalistic' and females don't fit into the stereotype of `suspicious' or
`criminal' this means that they are less likely to be stopped, arrested or
Women's domestic roles could provide opportunities for
committing crimes that could easily be covered up, for example
child abuse or domestic violence.
Carlen. When women are jailed, it is less for `the seriousness of their crimes and
more according to the court's assessment of them as wives, mothers and
- Women are lead to conformity:
Class Deal. ­women who work will be offered material rewards with a
decent standard of living and leisure opportunities.
Gender Deal. ­ patriarchal ideology promises women material gain and
emotional rewards from family life by conforming to a domestic gender
Parsons. Gender roles in the traditional nuclear family cause crime boys are
encouraged to be tough, aggressive and risk taking so are more likely to
take advantage of criminal opportunities when they arise.
Dobash and Dobash. Many violent attacks result from men's dissatisfaction with their wives'
performance of domestic duties. Men also exercise financial control by
denying women sufficient funds for leisure activities.
Oakley. Sex ­ biological differences.
Gender ­ culturally constructed differences.
Instrumental Role ­ performed in public sphere.
Expressive Role ­ Performed in private sphere.
Adler. "Liberation Thesis" as women become liberated from patriarchy their
crimes will become as frequent and serious of men's.
Messerschmitt. Masculinity is a social construct to which men try to live up to.
This masculine image causes men to commit crime.
Official Crime Show that women commit less crime than men. 2000 women in the prison
Statistics. make 4% of the prison population.
Women are mainly imprisoned for non-violent crimes.

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The statistics are seen in two ways, they are either incorrect saying that
women commit crime undetectable or the they are correct and that women
commit less crime.
Steffensmier. Women are treated more leniently in courts due to judges being reluctant
to separate women from children.
Women are less dangerous than men.
Women's motives aren't violence they are simply the result of acting
emotionally and irrationally; not driven by greed or wickedness.
Allen.…read more

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Primary deviance ­ deviant acts that have not been publicly labelled.
- Secondary deviance ­ result of societal reaction of labelling.
- Master Status ­ controlling identity .
Piliavin and Briar. Police decisions to arrest a youth were mainly based on physical cues e.g.
manner, dress, gender, class and ethnicity along with time and place.
Downes and Rock. Not everyone labelled will follow a deviant career.
Cohen. "Folk Devils and Moral Panics" ­ the study of society's reaction to the `mods
and rockers' disturbances.
Becker.…read more

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This results in morally questionable activities that could lead to death or
injury of the less powerful not being covered by the law.
Gilroy. Ethnic minority crime can be seen as a form of political resistance against a
racist society. This resistance has its roots in British imperialism
Hall et al. The ruling class are normally able to rule the subordinate classes through
The 1970s saw the emergence of a media driven moral panic of the growth
of a `new crime' muggings.…read more

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White. Anthropocentric: the view that assumes humans have the tight to
dominate nature for their own ends and puts economic growth before the
Ecocentric: humans and their environment are independent so both a
reliable to exploitation.
Kinsey, Lea and Police clear up rates are too low to act as a deterrent to crime and that
Young. police spend too little time actually investigating crime.
Runciman.…read more

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Using quantitative data from official statistics Durkheim found:
1. Suicide rates for a society remain more or less the same.
2. When the rates did change it coincided with other changes.
3. Different societies have different rates.
4. Rates varied between different social groups.
4 types of suicide
1. Egotistic ­ too little social integration.
2. Altruistic ­ too much social integration.
3. Anomic ­ too little moral regulation.
4. Fatalistic ­ too much moral regulation.…read more


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