Crime and Deviance Table of Sociologists

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CRIME AND DEIVIANCE ­ Table of Sociologists
GENDER
Sociologist What they said
Heidensohn - Women's behaviour is conformist
- Control at home ­ housework and childcare impose severe restrictions
on women's time
- Control in public ­ women fear the threat of male violence against them
- Control at work ­ kept in place by male supervisors and managers
- Females are treated more harshly than males when they deviate from
gender norms e.g. double standards ­ courts punish girls for premature or
promiscuous sexuality activity
- 4/5 convicted offenders in England and Wales are male
- By 40 9% of females had a conviction against 32% of males
- Males are more likely to be reoffenders
Pollak Men have a protective attitude towards women and so the criminal justice
system is more lenient with women
Carlen When women are jailed, it is less for `the seriousness of their crimes and
more according to the court's assessment of them as wives, mothers and
daughters'
- Women are lead to conformity:
Class Deal ­women who work will be offered material rewards with a
decent standard of living and leisure opportunities
Gender Deal ­ patriarchal ideology promises women material gain and
emotional rewards from family life by conforming to a domestic gender
role
Parsons Gender roles in the traditional nuclear family cause crime boys are
encouraged to be tough, aggressive and risk taking so are more likely to
take advantage of criminal opportunities when they arise
Dobash and Dobash Many violent attacks result from men's dissatisfaction with their wives'
performance of domestic duties. Men also exercise financial control by
denying women sufficient funds for leisure activities
Oakley Sex ­ biological differences
Gender ­ culturally constructed differences
Instrumental Role ­ performed in public sphere
Expressive Role ­ Performed in private sphere
Adler "Liberation Thesis" as women become liberated from patriarchy their
crimes will become as frequent and serious of men's
Messerschmidt Masculinity is a social construct to which men try to live up to.
This masculine image causes men to commit crime
NEW RIGHT
Murray - Crime rate is increasing because of a growing underclass who are defined
by their deviant behaviour and who fail to socialise their children properly
- the welfare state allows people to depend on benefits causing a
breakdown in marriage and an increase in lone-parent families
Clarke - situational crime prevention is an approach that doesn't rely on improving
society but by simply reducing opportunities for crime
- they are directed at specific crimes
- they involve altering the environment of crime
- they involve the increase in the effort and risk of the crime
Wilson and Kellig "Broken Window Theory"

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Herrnstein and The main cause of crime is low intelligence
Murray
Felson For a crime to occur there must be a motivated offender, a suitable victim
and the absence of a `capable guardian' e.g. police, neighbour
STATE CRIME
Mc Laughlin There are 4 categories of state crime:
1. Political Crime
2. Crimes by security and police forces
3. Economic Crimes
4. Social and cultural crimes
Cohen `spiral of state denial'
1. It didn't happen
2. If it did happen it is something else
3.…read more

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Pearce Laws that benefit the working class e.g.…read more

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Conflict: Result in high population turn over areas in loosely organised
gangs
- Retreatist: Any neighbourhood based on illegal drug use
GREEN CRIME
Schwendinger We should define crime in terms of the violation of basic human rights
rather than the breaking of legal rules
Beck In today's late modern society we can now provide adequate resources for
all.…read more

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Location and circumstances
-Life history
Taylor 4 types of suicide:
1. Submissive ­ person is certain about themselves e.g. know they
have no future
2. Thanatation ­ uncertain of themselves e.g. uncertain about what
others think of them, suicide involves risk taking
3. Sacrifice ­ certain about others and know they have to die
4. Appeal ­ person is uncertain about others
Durkheim - Sociology can be a science
Using quantitative data from official statistics Durkheim found:
1.…read more

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