Crime & Deviance Sociologists

4 Pages summing up all the Sociologists needed in the Crime & Deviance course.

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  • Created on: 04-06-14 16:53
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Crime & Deviance
Sociological Theories
Marxism
Box ­ the powerful steal from the ordinary but it's not counted as criminal
Gordon ­ the ideology of capitalism encourages crime in all classes
· Culture of greed
· Culture of envy amongst the poor
· A need to win that encourages white collar crime
Althusser ­ law is the ideological tool used by the state to protect capitalism
Croall ­ white collar crime is an abuse of their position
Right Realism
Murray ­ underclass lack morals in regard to family & marriage. Single mother families are
inadequate agent of socialisation because young boys lack male role models.
Charlesworth ­ found unemployment had a negative effect on health but most weren't
criminals.
Clarke ­ the decision to commit crime is based upon the chances of conviction.
Hirschi ­ people do not commit crime because of 4 controls which become more prominent
as we age
· Commitment ­ job/education may be at risk
· Involvement ­ may have a loss of respect
· Belief ­ morals may stop them
· Attachment ­ relationships may be at risk
(evaluation) Cohen ­ new right thinking leads to victimisation.
Functionalism
Merton ­ media presents material success as a realistic goal, however opportunities are
unfairly distributed in society and individual will respond in different ways
· Conformity ­ continue as normal
· Innovation ­ use illegal means to gain success
· Retreatism ­ drop out of society
· Ritualism ­ satisfied but meaningless jobs
· Rebellion ­ rebel
Durkheim ­ less crime in preindustrial society because of family & religion, whereas modern
complex lives in postindustrial society undermines family & religion
Young ­ education & media stress meritocracy but he found a 'chaos of inequality' where
celebrities earn huge sums of money whereas hard workers struggle
NeoMarxism
Hall ­ studied the way media in the 1970's created moral panic surrounding 'muggings' and
presented the crime as black criminals targeting white people ­ this was the media acting on
the states behalf to divide and control a 'troublesome' population.
Agres ­ capitalism is based on class conflict.
Birmingham CCCS ­ capitalism outlives the subcultures that challenge it.
Cohen ­ skinheads are antiimmigration as a result of a decline in the white working class.
Interactionalism

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Becker ­ there is no such thing as a deviant act, it is relative to the situation as to whether the
act becomes deviant or not.
Holdaway ­ police treat ethnic minorities negatively.
Lement ­ 2 types of crime
· Primary ­ insignificant acts
· Secondary ­ individual is labelled as criminal and stigmatised
Left Realism
Young ­ criticised government for not tackled deprivation, marginalisation & exclusion which
cause crime.…read more

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Shaw & Mckay ­ found the 'Concentric Zone Model' in cities and found the 'Transition Zone'
as one of poverty & high crime rates.
Durkheim ­ rise in crime rates is a result in the decline in community.
Hobbs ­ young people in bars & clubs on Friday & Saturday nights in Manchester account for
75% of violent crimes.
Ethnicity & Crime
Reinar ­ 'canteen culture' in the police (racism).
Morris ­ OCS state that most crime is committed by young people & ethnic minorities.…read more

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Gordon ­ working class crime is a realistic response to inequality.
Age & Crime
Lyng ­ crime is spur of the moment, therefore anyone of any age could commit crime.
Hirschi ­ older people are less likely to commit because the 4 controls affect them more.
Patterns in Victimisation
BRITISH CRIME SURVEYS
Pilkington ­ the BCS confuses the meaning of numbers sexual assault accounts for a small
percentage of crime but has a big impact.…read more

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