First 383 words of the document:
Crime & Deviance
Box the powerful steal from the ordinary but it's not counted as criminal
Gordon the ideology of capitalism encourages crime in all classes
· Culture of greed
· Culture of envy amongst the poor
· A need to win that encourages white collar crime
Althusser law is the ideological tool used by the state to protect capitalism
Croall white collar crime is an abuse of their position
Murray underclass lack morals in regard to family & marriage. Single mother families are
inadequate agent of socialisation because young boys lack male role models.
Charlesworth found unemployment had a negative effect on health but most weren't
Clarke the decision to commit crime is based upon the chances of conviction.
Hirschi people do not commit crime because of 4 controls which become more prominent
as we age
· Commitment job/education may be at risk
· Involvement may have a loss of respect
· Belief morals may stop them
· Attachment relationships may be at risk
(evaluation) Cohen new right thinking leads to victimisation.
Merton media presents material success as a realistic goal, however opportunities are
unfairly distributed in society and individual will respond in different ways
· Conformity continue as normal
· Innovation use illegal means to gain success
· Retreatism drop out of society
· Ritualism satisfied but meaningless jobs
· Rebellion rebel
Durkheim less crime in preindustrial society because of family & religion, whereas modern
complex lives in postindustrial society undermines family & religion
Young education & media stress meritocracy but he found a 'chaos of inequality' where
celebrities earn huge sums of money whereas hard workers struggle
Hall studied the way media in the 1970's created moral panic surrounding 'muggings' and
presented the crime as black criminals targeting white people this was the media acting on
the states behalf to divide and control a 'troublesome' population.
Agres capitalism is based on class conflict.
Birmingham CCCS capitalism outlives the subcultures that challenge it.
Cohen skinheads are antiimmigration as a result of a decline in the white working class.
Other pages in this set
Here's a taster:
Becker there is no such thing as a deviant act, it is relative to the situation as to whether the
act becomes deviant or not.
Holdaway police treat ethnic minorities negatively.
Lement 2 types of crime
· Primary insignificant acts
· Secondary individual is labelled as criminal and stigmatised
Young criticised government for not tackled deprivation, marginalisation & exclusion which
cause crime.…read more
Here's a taster:
Shaw & Mckay found the 'Concentric Zone Model' in cities and found the 'Transition Zone'
as one of poverty & high crime rates.
Durkheim rise in crime rates is a result in the decline in community.
Hobbs young people in bars & clubs on Friday & Saturday nights in Manchester account for
75% of violent crimes.
Ethnicity & Crime
Reinar 'canteen culture' in the police (racism).
Morris OCS state that most crime is committed by young people & ethnic minorities.…read more
Here's a taster:
Gordon working class crime is a realistic response to inequality.
Age & Crime
Lyng crime is spur of the moment, therefore anyone of any age could commit crime.
Hirschi older people are less likely to commit because the 4 controls affect them more.
Patterns in Victimisation
BRITISH CRIME SURVEYS
Pilkington the BCS confuses the meaning of numbers sexual assault accounts for a small
percentage of crime but has a big impact.…read more