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Key Studies in Crime and
You could consolidate this
information with your own reading...…read more

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Non Sociological Studies…read more

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Physiological Studies
· Caesar Lombroso (1876) Criminals are genetically and
physiologically different
· There are physical characteristics that betray a criminal
nature such as: extra toes, large jaws or prominent
· Lombroso catalogued the physical characteristics of
hundreds of criminals and claimed he could identify the
type of crime the offender engaged in by their physiology
· Moir and Jessel (1995) chemical / hormonal imbalances
within the body male individuals more likely to deviate.
Men are more likely to suffer such imbalances and hence
commit more crime…read more

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Psychological studies
· Bowlby (1946) Children whom are loved
insufficiently by their mothers in early years
develop personality traits that will lead them
to commit crime
· Eysenck (1964) conducted his own
psychological research and concluded that
criminal behaviour is an inherited
psychological tendency within the individual…read more

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· Durkheim (1897) Crime and deviance
reinforces the values and consensus of the
majority of non-criminal people `degradation
· Societies also need to change to remain
stable, initially, behaviours that initiate social
change will be viewed as deviant until change
occurs and a new consensus forms
· Moderate functional crime is ok, but too much
could lead to a state of anomie - chaos…read more

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Albert Cohen (1966) certain deviance is functional:
prostitution provides a `safety valve' for men's sexual
drives. It relieves social pressure without challenging
social stability
· Deviant behaviour represents an `early warning' enabling
society to identify emerging social problems or
grievances that need addressing (protests)
· Cohen's sub cultural theory states that a gangs deviant
value system leads to all criminal behaviours
· Working class boys who lacked opportunities, due to
cultural deprivation could not achieve success
· They suffer status frustration and form gangs which hold
alternative values to achieve success. Behaviour, deviant
to mainstream society is normal within the gang…read more

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ali wasi


Excellent stuff! Cheers pal

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