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Crime and Deviance Key Sociologists

Theories on Crime and Deviance

Functionalist Theory

Emile Durkheim ­ Crime has four key characteristics:
Inevitable means that crime will always exist
Universal means it exists in every society
Relative means that what is seen as criminal behaviour varies from society to society and

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Toughness ­ being physically tougher than others and demonstrating it.
Box pointed out that there is little evidence to suggest that these are specifically lower-class
values. These points could be applied to male's right across the class structure.

Nightingale ­ Studied young black gangs in an inner-city…

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Frequency ­ the number of times the definitions occur
Duration ­ over what length of time
Priority ­ at what stage in life
Intensity ­ the status of the person making the definition

Morris ­ By his studies in Croydon he found local council's policy of housing `problem families'

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Chambliss ­ The RDU demonstrates the racist policing strategies of some Washington DC police
officers. They treated the `black' areas of the city with more aggression and suspicion that the
`white' areas therefore creating a label of black men as criminals and would then stop more cars
being driven by…

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Subculture ­ groups of individuals sharing relative depression may come together and
form gangs
Marginalisation ­ feel on the edge of society and have no group to stand up for them. This
can lead to aggression which can cause street crime.

Gordon Hughes ­ this…

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Jones and Singer ­ The proportion of nationals of black British background in prison was 7.4 per
1000 population compared to 1.4 per 1000 for whites.

Philips and Browns ­ Studied 10 police stations across Britain found that those if African-Caribbean
origin accounted for a disproportionately high number of arrests.…

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Early subcultural theorists ­ Assume only teenagers from the working class will join gangs, possibly
due to status frustration because of educational failures.

Owen Gill (Environmental theorists) ­ Suggested that police labelling and deviancy amplifications
may play a role.

Right theorists ­ These theorists agree that the typical criminal is…

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Critical victimology disregards the role victims may play in bringing victimisation on themselves
through their own choices or their own offending. It is valuable in drawing attention to the way
that `victim' status is constructed by power and how this benefits the powerful at the expense…

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Between direct and indirect actions of the state
Between crimes of commission and omission

Barak ­ States commit crimes in other countries in ways that will benefit major economic
organisations i.e. America interfering with the political processes of South American countries to
ensure that the interests of large US corporations…


Asha Ibrahim


great :)

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