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Crime and Deviance
Key Sociologists
Sociologist What They Believed
Durkheim Functionalist
Inevitability of crime
Boundary maintenance
Adaptation and change
Society of saints

Davis Functionalist
Crime as a safety valve
A. Cohen Functionalist
Subcultural strain theory
Crime acts as a warning that society
isn't functioning
Status frustration
Alternative status hierarchy


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Cicourel Labelling
Negotiation of justice

Lemert Labelling
Secondary and primary deviance
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Deviant career
Deviant subculture
Master status
Young Labelling
Notting Hill
Hippy marijuana users
S. Cohen Deviance amplification spiral
Folk devils
Moral panic
Triplett Labelling (in USA)
Young offenders seen as evil
Less tolerant of minor…

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Pearce Marxism
Health and safety laws meant to
benefit w/c but benefit ruling class too
as for work etc.
Carson 200 firms
All broken health and safety
1.5% prosecuted
Taylor, Young, Walton Neo Marxism
Often political motive
Liberty and diversity (individuals not
deviant just because they are different…

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Use evidence of British Crime Surveys
and local surveys
Late modernity :
- Cultural and economic exclusion
since de-industrialisation
- 50s and 60s = Golden Age
Lea and Young Left realism
Relative deprivation (and
individualism = lethal combination)
Marginalisation and subcultures

Runciman Concept of relative deprivation

Weber Left realism

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Double standards
Patriarchal control (home, work,

Carlen Bias against women
When women jailed for less serious
crimes and more according to court's
assessment of female roles
Scottish judges more likely to jail
women whose children

Walklate Bias against women
Rape victim on trial to prove
Criticises functionalist sex…

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Girls adopting more `male stances' for
control and to look `hard'

Chesney-Lind In the USA the poor and the
marginalised more likely than
liberated women to be criminals
Found evidence of women branching
out into typically male offences like
drugs but this is linked to unliberated
female offence
- Prostitution…

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Sharp and Budd 2003 Crime, Offending and Justice
survey of 12,000 people
Whites and mixed ethnicity more
likely to say they have committed an
offence, followed by blacks and Asians
Hudson and Bramhall Pre-sentence reports allow for
unwitting discrimination
Reports on Asian offenders were less
comprehensive and suggested they

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Correlation between media
consumption and fear of crime
- Particularly in tabloid readers and
heavy TV watchers

Soothill and Walby Newspaper reporting of rape cases
increased from under a quarter of all
cases in 1951 to over a third in 1985
Coverage consistently focuses on
identifying a `sex fiend' etc.,…

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Inventory of four elements
- Prediction, symbolisation,
exaggeration and distortion
Boundary crisis in time of change of
what is acceptable

McRobbie and Thornton Moral panics now routine and have
less impact

Jewkes Internet creates opportunities to
commit both `conventional crimes'
- Such as fraud
Also creates new crimes using new…

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Hobbs and Dunningham Crime now organised like a `hub' with
loose-knit network around it
Contrasts with `Mafia'-style
Large scale criminal organisations of
the past
`Glocal' organisation

Glenny McMafia
- Organisations that emerged in Russia
and Eastern Europe following the fall
of communism
Russian government deregulated most
sectors of economy except…


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