Crime and Deviance Key Sociologists

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Crime and Deviance
Key Sociologists
Sociologist What They Believed
Durkheim Functionalist
Inevitability of crime
Boundary maintenance
Adaptation and change
Society of saints
Davis Functionalist
Crime as a safety valve
A. Cohen Functionalist
Subcultural strain theory
Crime acts as a warning that society
isn't functioning
Status frustration
Alternative status hierarchy
Merton Subcultural strain theory
American dream
Strain to anomie
Cultural and structural factors
Cloward and Ohlin Subcultural strain theory
Lack of illegitimate and legitimate
Platt Labelling theory
Moral entrepreneurs ( Juvenile
Becker Labelling theory
Moral entrepreneurs
Marijuana Tax Act in US
Piliavin and Briar Labelling
Police based decisions to arrest a
youth mainly on physical cues

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Cicourel Labelling
Negotiation of justice
Lemert Labelling
Secondary and primary deviance
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Deviant career
Deviant subculture
Master status
Young Labelling
Notting Hill
Hippy marijuana users
S.…read more

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Pearce Marxism
Health and safety laws meant to
benefit w/c but benefit ruling class too
as for work etc.
Carson 200 firms
All broken health and safety
1.…read more

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Use evidence of British Crime Surveys
and local surveys
Late modernity :
- Cultural and economic exclusion
since de-industrialisation
- 50s and 60s = Golden Age
Lea and Young Left realism
Relative deprivation (and
individualism = lethal combination)
Marginalisation and subcultures
Runciman Concept of relative deprivation
Weber Left realism
Theodicy of disprivelege
Religion offers an explanation for
Different subcultures in reaction to
relative deprivation
Not all criminal
Kinsey, Lea and Young Left realism
Police rely on military policing
Should take multi-agency approach
Pollak Chivalry…read more

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Double standards
Patriarchal control (home, work,
Carlen Bias against women
When women jailed for less serious
crimes and more according to court's
assessment of female roles
Scottish judges more likely to jail
women whose children
Walklate Bias against women
Rape victim on trial to prove
Criticises functionalist sex role theory
for biological assumptions
Parsons Functionalist sex role theory
Women more likely to be at home due
to role
A Cohen (Gender and Crime) Functionalist sex role theory
Lack of adult male role model…read more

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Girls adopting more `male stances' for
control and to look `hard'
Chesney-Lind In the USA the poor and the
marginalised more likely than
liberated women to be criminals
Found evidence of women branching
out into typically male offences like
drugs but this is linked to unliberated
female offence
- Prostitution
Laidler and Hunt Female gang members in USA
expected to conform to traditional
gender roles in the same was as
non-deviant girls
Evidence against suggestion that
professional crime has opened up to
Messerschmidt Masculinity…read more

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Sharp and Budd 2003 Crime, Offending and Justice
survey of 12,000 people
Whites and mixed ethnicity more
likely to say they have committed an
offence, followed by blacks and Asians
Hudson and Bramhall Pre-sentence reports allow for
unwitting discrimination
Reports on Asian offenders were less
comprehensive and suggested they
were less remorseful than white
Lea and Young (ethnicity) We cannot explain differences in
offending with `police racism' `
90% of crimes known to police
reported by members of public
Relative deprivation
Statistics…read more

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Correlation between media
consumption and fear of crime
- Particularly in tabloid readers and
heavy TV watchers
Soothill and Walby Newspaper reporting of rape cases
increased from under a quarter of all
cases in 1951 to over a third in 1985
Coverage consistently focuses on
identifying a `sex fiend' etc.…read more

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Inventory of four elements
- Prediction, symbolisation,
exaggeration and distortion
Boundary crisis in time of change of
what is acceptable
McRobbie and Thornton Moral panics now routine and have
less impact
Jewkes Internet creates opportunities to
commit both `conventional crimes'
- Such as fraud
Also creates new crimes using new
tools such as software privacy
ICT permits routine surveillance
through use of CCTVS, digital
fingerprinting etc.…read more

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Hobbs and Dunningham Crime now organised like a `hub' with
loose-knit network around it
Contrasts with `Mafia'-style
Large scale criminal organisations of
the past
`Glocal' organisation
Glenny McMafia
- Organisations that emerged in Russia
and Eastern Europe following the fall
of communism
Russian government deregulated most
sectors of economy except for natural
resources such as oil, remaining at
only 40th of world market price so
people with such funds could buy up
for next to nothing and sell for a lot
Chechen mafia became a…read more


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