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LEFT REALISM (based on socialist ideas) - Left Realists argue that crime is rooted in social
inequality such as poverty, when these are reduced then so is crime. They pay more attention to
victims and public opinion unlike the New Criminology which pays little attention to victims.

Lea and Young-…

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RIGHT REALISM (based on conservative ideas)- go against the view that poverty is the cause of
crime as many people in poverty do not commit crimes. RR focus on predatory street crime such as
burglary, theft, robbery and murder (because the police focus on these crimes the most). Crime is…

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NEW RIGHT THEORY- concerned with the emergence of an underclass in society which are
responsible for a vast majority of crimes committed, this is due to their norms and values being
separate from mainstream society and their suffering of cultural deprivation.

Murray- welfare state is to blame for an underclass;…

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Functionalist A. Cohen- delinquency is collective as gang members require an audience to gain
respect and status. Subcultures are a reaction to someone's specific situation, Cohen believes that
crime is due to status frustration especially for working class boys which are denied status in the
education system, this leads…

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MARXISM- based on conflict between the upper and working classes rather than consensus (like
functionalists). Blame capitalism for crimes as it creates inequality which drives people to crime.
Corporate crime is hidden but creates large economic problems for society white. White collar crime
is also hidden as `it leaves no…

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NEW CRIMINOLOGY AND NEO-MARXISM- is a contemporary Marxist approach to crime and
deviance developed by Taylor. Based on the idea that criminologists should look at every aspect of
crime in detail, including the reasons behind criminal acts, the role played by the courts, police and
mass media, and finally at…

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Scapegoat- A person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, esp. for
reasons of expediency


Adler- rise in female crime due to the ladette culture in which women are adopting more masculine
characteristics such as drinking excessively and partaking in antisocial behaviour.

Heidensohn- women are…

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Campbell (1993) ­ working class young men asserted their masculinity through the excitement of
joy-riding and ram-raiding. They stole cars and smashed them into shops which led to a car chase by
the police which fuelled their excitement. This was because they were brought up in a consumer
society where…

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Durkheim- argues that crime functional and beneficial for the smooth running of society. Society has
a consensus on crime and deviance. Although not everyone follows the collective conscience as
people are naturally self-seeking. Crime is inevitable and beneficial- without it, society will fail as it
enables social change to…

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