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LEFT REALISM (based on socialist ideas) - Left Realists argue that crime is rooted in social
inequality such as poverty, when these are reduced then so is crime. They pay more attention to
victims and public opinion unlike the New Criminology which pays little attention to victims.
Lea and Young- crimes occur due to relative deprivation ­ media stress the importance of
consuming and aspiring to have middle-class lifestyles, when one cannot achieve this (due to
unemployment) they turn to crime. Subcultures also emerge when a group of people all feel
relatively deprived, subcultures help them cope as they are able to create their own lifestyle and
goals which they can achieve e.g. Rastafarians. L&Y also argue that marginalised individuals (young
unemployed members of an ethnic minority) are more prone to violence and criminal behaviour
because they have no clearly defined aims and see the future as unrewarding.
Kingsey et al. - police success lies in improving relationships with the community so that information
on crime which the police rely on increases. Stopping and searching suspects and having police on the
beat is ineffective and they need to spend more time on investigating. The clear up rate is extremely
low (8% in some areas) which suggests that police are unable to deter criminals as 90% of solved
crimes rely on public notification.
Young- identifies areas which are over-policed and under-policed. Police and the state concentrated
on minor drug offences and juvenile status crimes (underage drinking) whilst there is less focus on
crimes such as corporate crime or racially motivated attacks. Solutions to crime are not to improve
policing but to improve living standards for the poor, improve leisure facilities for the young and
reducing unemployment. Young said victim surveys 'allow us to give a voice to the experience of
people' and take their needs seriously. They reveal the extent of victimisation, the concerns of the
victims and provide information which we can base policies of crime prevention on.
The square of crime- combines structure and action. When examining crime, the following 4 aspects
should be considered and the interaction between them:
The state- agents of social control decide what is criminal (police and courts)
The offender- vital to consider why people offend and drift in and out of criminal behaviour
The public- Stigmatisation from peer groups, family and neighbours is one of the most powerful
determinants of behaviour. Media also shapes public perceptions of what is deviant which causes the
public to apply labels to certain acts. The
victim- it is important to consider what makes victims vulnerable in both a macro (e.g. their position in
society) and a micro (e.g. their relationship to the offender.
Hughs (1991) argues that Left Realism relies on subcultural theories, which have been criticised in
their turn and that street crimes cannot be explained within this theory
Jones (1998) argues that relative deprivation is not necessarily the cause of crime, as not all people
commit crime.
Ruggerio (1992) argues that white collar crime is impossible to explain within Left Realism
Postmodernists may argue that it is wholly impossible to improve a sense of community due to the
loss in social capital experienced in a fragmented society

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RIGHT REALISM (based on conservative ideas)- go against the view that poverty is the cause of
crime as many people in poverty do not commit crimes. RR focus on predatory street crime such as
burglary, theft, robbery and murder (because the police focus on these crimes the most). Crime is
due to biological differences, poor socialisation in the underclass and rational choice. Best way to
reduce crime is through control and punishment.
Wilson (1975) - crime is committed when the benefits outweigh the costs.…read more

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NEW RIGHT THEORY- concerned with the emergence of an underclass in society which are
responsible for a vast majority of crimes committed, this is due to their norms and values being
separate from mainstream society and their suffering of cultural deprivation.
Murray- welfare state is to blame for an underclass; unemployed men and single mothers rely on the
welfare state for all their income and may supplement this income through crime. Members of the
underclass reject mainstream values of society.…read more

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Functionalist A. Cohen- delinquency is collective as gang members require an audience to gain
respect and status. Subcultures are a reaction to someone's specific situation, Cohen believes that
crime is due to status frustration especially for working class boys which are denied status in the
education system, this leads to their failure at school, dead end jobs and lower status housing.
Working class boys are thus more likely to commit non-utilitarian crimes in particular which do not
produce any monetary value.…read more

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MARXISM- based on conflict between the upper and working classes rather than consensus (like
functionalists). Blame capitalism for crimes as it creates inequality which drives people to crime.
Corporate crime is hidden but creates large economic problems for society white. White collar crime
is also hidden as `it leaves no blood on the street' (Croall), less likely to be reported or recorded.…read more

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NEW CRIMINOLOGY AND NEO-MARXISM- is a contemporary Marxist approach to crime and
deviance developed by Taylor. Based on the idea that criminologists should look at every aspect of
crime in detail, including the reasons behind criminal acts, the role played by the courts, police and
mass media, and finally at politics and capitalism itself.
Taylor, Walton and Young- existing theories do not fully explain criminal behaviour. Crime happens
due to the inequalities created by crime (which is a conscious decision taken by the individual).…read more

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Scapegoat- A person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, esp. for
reasons of expediency
Adler- rise in female crime due to the ladette culture in which women are adopting more masculine
characteristics such as drinking excessively and partaking in antisocial behaviour.
Heidensohn- women are controlled due to their roles as housewives and this gives them little time
to commit crime or be in a place where crime is committed.…read more

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Campbell (1993) ­ working class young men asserted their masculinity through the excitement of
joy-riding and ram-raiding. They stole cars and smashed them into shops which led to a car chase by
the police which fuelled their excitement. This was because they were brought up in a consumer
society where high performance cars were associated with success and status. (Cohen-
non-utilitarian crimes)
In the 1970's Radical Feminists described the family as patriarchal, men dominated their wives
through domestic violence, rape and bullying.…read more

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Durkheim- argues that crime functional and beneficial for the smooth running of society. Society has
a consensus on crime and deviance. Although not everyone follows the collective conscience as
people are naturally self-seeking. Crime is inevitable and beneficial- without it, society will fail as it
enables social change to occur e.g.…read more

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