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Craik and Tulving (1975)

To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.


Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to
answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process
the word in a deep way (e.g. semantic)…

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· Imagery ­ by creating an image of something you want to remember, you elaborate on it
and encode it visually (i.e. a mind map).

The above examples could all be used to revise psychology using semantic
processing (e.g. explaining memory models to your mum, using mind maps etc.) and…

Page 3

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· However, recent studies have clarified this point - it appears that deeper coding
produces better retention because it is more elaborate. Elaborative encoding
enriches the memory representation of an item by activating many aspects of its
meaning and linking it into the pre-existing network of semantic associations.

· Later…


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