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We can process information in 3 ways:
Shallow Processing ­ This takes two forms
1. Structural processing (appearance) which is
when we encode only the physical qualities of
something. E.g. the typeface of a word or how the
letters look.
2. Phonetic processing ­ which is when we encode
its sound.
Shallow processing involves repetition to help us
hold something in the STM and leads to fairly short-
term retention of information.…read more

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Deep Processing - This involves
3. Semantic processing, which happens when we
encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar
words with similar meaning.
Deep processing involves a more meaningful
analysis (e.g. images, thinking, associations etc.) of
information and leads to better recall. For example,
giving words a meaning or linking them with previous
knowledge.…read more

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To illustrate this theory have a go at the following
1. Is the word FISH in lower case or capital letters? 2.
Does the word STYLE rhyme with 'pin'?
3. Is the word PANCAKE a form of transport?
Work out which of these questions involves shallow
processing involving only the appearance of a word.
Which question insisted on deeper processing
involving appearance and sound of the word?
Which question insisted on deepest processing
involving semantic (meaning) analysis?…read more

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According to Craik & Lockhart the latter should be
best remembered. 1. Is the word FISH in lower
case or capital letters?
2. Does the word STYLE
The first question is shallow. rhyme with 'pin'?
3. Is the word PANCAKE
a form of transport?
The second question is deeper.
The third question is deepest.…read more

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MEMORY: Levels of processing
Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Aim: To see if the type of question asked about words will have an effect on the
numbers of words recalled.
Method: Participants were presented with a list of words, one at a time, and
asked questions about each word, to which they had to answer `yes' or `no'.
Some questions required structural processing of the words; others required
phonetic processing and the remainder required semantic processing. They
were then given a longer list of words and asked to identify the words they had
answered questions about.
Results: Participants identified 70% of the words that required semantic
processing, 35% of the words that required phonetic processing and 15% of the
words that required structural processing.
Conclusion: The more deeply information is processed; the more likely it is to
be remembered.…read more


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