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This refers to the roles that men and women play in relationships.

Parsons: Instrumental and expressive roles
Is a Functionalist that identifies a clear division of gender roles within the nuclear family ­
husbands have an instrumental role of being the breadwinner and wives have…

Page 2

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Warde and Hetherington suggest that sex-typing of domestic labour still remains strong, for
examples wives are 30x's more likely to have last done the washing and men are 4'xs more likely
to have last washed the car.
However young men's attitudes have changed slightly with less female role assumptions.

Page 3

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The Dual Burden
Feminists state that there is little evidence of this `new man' and instead, women face paid-work
and unpaid housework and men benefit from both.
Ferri and Smith provide evidence of the dual burden as they found that increased employment for
women has had a little impact on…

Page 4

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Barrett and McIntosh note that:
1) men normally make the decision on what to spend money on
2) men gain more from women's housework than they give back financially
3) this financial support is often `unpredictable' with `strings attached'
Family members do not equally…

Page 5

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Official statistics
-> Victims may be less willing/unlikely to report crime as Yearnshire found that a woman
experiences 35 assaults of crime before reporting it.
-> Police and prosecutors are reluctant to get involved in peoples personal family lives. Cheal
found that state agencies make three assumptions about family life…


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