Counter urbanisation notes

These notes are for the AQA Geography A level paper for the World Cities topic. 

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  • Created on: 12-03-12 19:36
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Processes of change in urban areas:
Suburbanisation ­ decentralisation of people, employment and services from the inner part of the
city towards the margins of the built up area- the effects of suburbanisation are felt within the city
and in the surrounding rural areas.
Counter urbanisation - this is change extending beyond the city area and marks the apparent
reversal of the urbanisation process which is occurring in MEDCs i.e. urban-rural migration is taking
place. It is the movement of people from urban areas into rural areas (leaving the city and moving to
smaller towns and villages.
There are 2 distinct trends:
A movement of employment to rural areas
A movement of people to rural areas who then commute (e- retailing)
Why are people moving to rural areas?
Traffic congestion
Fear of crime
Rural dream
Estate agents/housing developers all encourage outward movement through new
developments/building more houses and marketing these areas
Factors that have helped counter urbanisation:
Technological change- fax, blackberry, email, phones, internet- led to growth of teleworking
or `electronic commuting' people working from home- encouraging rural living.
Freezers, telephone, TV, allow rural lifestyle but not isolation
Improvements in roads/motorway networks make commuting easier encouraging people to
move out from the cities (gradually congestion sets in and cycle begins again)
Urban renewal processes during the 50s and 60s meant that due to slum clearance large
numbers of people had to move from inner city areas- most were re-housed on council estate
on edge of city- or beyond the city in new towns/overspill settlements.
Consequences for the rural settlement of urbanisation:
Negative effects:
Housing prices increases
Local resentment caused
Lack of appreciation of traditional customs of village life by newcomers- change in
community spirit
Dormitory villages lose vitality and community spirit (very quiet during the day)
Increase in population puts pressure and more strain on services

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Positive effects:
Improvements in services-e.g. gas mains, cable TV supporters
supports local schools
Supports some local facilities e.g.…read more


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