CORE STUDIES, SECTION B, CHANGES AND IMPLICATIONS

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Study Change Effect to results
Loftus and Get p's to observe staged but "real" accident. More accurate estimates of speed
Palmer Higher ecological validity ­ accounts for variables such as emotional response to Less Ps reporting broken glass
situation. Less variation between verbs
Harder to replicate so lower reliability. Less alteration of memories
May not all have a clear view of incident. Reduce validity.
Savage-Rumbau Use more chimpanzees from both types Use more species and more chimps increases the
gh Use a bigger sample generalisability/representativeness of the sample
Baron-Cohen Look at real people, whole faces and body language as well More ecologically valid as we use more than eyes to read emotions/feelings
Gives more details on what we use to `read' emotions
Milgram Carry out the task but instead of using equipment to shock use a questionnaire with Expect that they are less likely to punish people to a serious level. Less likely
hypothetical situations in it, this can be done completely anonymously which will to obey authority figures, less obvious physical and emotional signs of distress.
increase validity as less demand characteristics. Less harm to the participants in terms
of distress.
OR carry out in a less controlled laboratory environment less reliable
Piliavin Carry it out in a shopping mall or less enclosed space which still retains the ecological May find more diffusion of responsibility as they can walk away as not in
validity, but can allow the subjects more freedom in terms of space to walk away, confined area.
Could still distress if no help offered Still find that there will be same race helping, males more than females and ill
more than drunk.
Reicher and Observe real life prisoners/guards More ecologically valid
Haslam
Freud Freud should do one to one interviews with Little Hans. Involves analysis of data by "expert" and removes bias of Little Hans' father's
However will reduce validity because LH not just behaving naturally in home involvement. So data should be more reliable. and power imbalance
environment and being asked questions by parent who would normally be present. between child subject and adult
LH will have to give self report answers (may be subject to social desirability bias Interviewer). More accurate dreams. More evidence to support his theory
Bandura In a natural setting get the students to watch the video and then observe them in Expect more imitative verbal aggression in play
the playground or at home. More ecologically valid as watching their normal play, Less physical aggression. Same gender differences
rather than in a staged environment. If more than one rater can establish inter-rater
reliability
Samuel and Do longitudinal study of children's ability to conserve. Study same children over a Get more children being able to conserve younger. Still expect conservation
Bryant number of years and use a larger sample and from more than one area (the original To improve with age and number better than mass then volume. Maybe less
was Devon) This would make it more valid and representative. Use juice or sweets as errors with the one judgment task
it is more ecologically valid.
Griffiths Use Regular Gamblers and Non Regular Gamblers that aren't students. Would make the sample more representative and results generalisable.
Rosenhan Get the participants to repeat the experience in another hospital. This would Likely that the results would be the same, still admitted, ignored by staff, feel
increase the reliability or unreliability of the diagnosis between doctors if the same P powerlessness, depersonalized and behaviors labeled according to diagnosis
presents to them. Use the DSM iv schizophrenia in remission. Should be fewer errors in diagnosis as there are
more criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia.
Thigpen and Observe her in her own home using cameras. More ecologically valid but have to be More likely to see natural occurrences of the two personalities and also prove
Cleckley aware of ethics, invasion of privacy, consent. If unaware there is deception but more the existence of the other as if she is acting more likely to slip up if unaware
valid results. of being watched.
Maguire Pretest the taxi drivers before the knowledge acquired Can determine more cause effect to see if the knowledge causes a change in
hippocampus volume. More time consuming.
Sperry Use a blindfold and get an experimenter to hold/flash a card in the visual field. More Be able to pick out and name from both VF
ecologically valid but much less reliable as info can transfer across CC. Need to test Find out if their behavior was atypical(diff from norm)
the subjects prior to surgery.

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Dement and Carry out in their homes with no electrodes could be observed and still speak into More accurate dreams , more natural dreaming behavior
Kleitman tape recorder More time spent in REM as more relaxed dreams
More ecologically valid but less reliable due to lack of controls.…read more

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