Core Studies Revision Cards for OCR (Full)

Contains everything on the 15 studies that you need to know and on the perspectives and approaches.

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  • Created on: 06-06-11 13:27
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Cognitive Approach
BaronCohen --
Background BC's own research with children (SallyAnne test) other tests with
adults (Happe)
sample Autistic/Asperger Syndrome (ASD) 13 m 3 f Tourettes Normal 25f+25M
(nonuniversity, matched for age range)
Sample method ASD: Self selecting (advert in autistic magazine) + some known to BC
Tourettes: self selecting invited via clinic
Normal: "random" from Cambridge University pool of volunteers
Method Lab experiment Quasi
IV Autism / Normal / Tourette's (control)
DV score when `reading' eyes
Technique Selfreport
results ASD Ps lower mean scores in eyes test + strange stories task cf.
Tourette's & normal Ps. All Ps = comparable scores on 2x control tasks
Conclusion Eyes task is useful alternative test for ASD (concurrent validity cf.
qualitative Happe's strange stories + quantitative) Reading emotion in
eyes requires Theory of Mind
gh -- Cognitive
Background Claim that only humans can learn language (LAD theory) previous
research with chimps and language
Sample Two pygmy chimpanzees (Bonobos), Kanzi ands his sister Mulika.
Two common chimpanzees Sherman and Austin.
Sample method Opportunity (Kanzi's learning found "serendipitously" before study)
Method Lab/quasi experiment
Method Case study
Techniques Observation (including `blind' trial) and testing (verbal and nonverbal)
Results Kanzi learnt like a human child because he copied things from his mum at
first and then started learning for himself like a child Bonobos responded
well to speech, common chimps angry and confused common chimps
overgeneralised Bonobos requested items for each other, common
chimps only for themselves

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Conclusion Pygmy chimps can learn in the a very similar way to humans language
may not be uniquely human
Loftus & Palmer --
Cognitive approach
Background Studies on memory showing `postevent information' can distort
recall police interest in accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony
sample 45 (exp 1) +150 (exp 2) students M/F
Sample method Opportunity
Method TWO Lab experiments True
IV 5 verbs (exp1) 2 verbs + control (exp 2)
DV Mean estimated speed (exp 1) false recall of broken glass (exp 2)
Technique selfreport…read more

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Weaknesses often relies on Selfreport technique = demand characteristics
Usually studied through laboratory experiments [SR = case studies
in lab conditions] so lack ecological validity
often reductionist ignores the complexity of human functioning e.g.
biological / social / psychodynamic factors
Developmental Approach
Samuel and Bryant
ID Conservation
Background Piaget, <7yos could not conserve Rose and Blank children
confused by 2 Qs could conserve quantity if only asked 1
Sample 256 children, 58yo, M/F, from schools / playgroups in Devon.…read more

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Method Case study
Sample method Opportunity
Techniques Self report + observation by father (Max) Freud only met Hans x1
Results Hans liked to play with his `widdler' fantasies about giraffes
(interpreted as taking his mum away from his dad) plumber cutting
of his `widdler' (but replacing it with copper!) Hans like to talk about
`lumf' Hans had a phobia of horses fantasy where Hand became
`father' (= `husband' of his mum), Max became `grandfather' =
resolution of Oedipus complex
Conclusion Hans was experiencing the Oedipus…read more

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Assumptions internal mental processes such as memory, thinking, reasoning,
problemsolving and language, are important features influencing
human behaviour
Strengths Explanations:
why differing ages demonstrate different intellectual abilities, social skills
and emotional responses
Adding knowledge to the continuing nature versus nurture debate
Applications: Controlling violence on children's TV (Bandura) Helping
teachers understand learning processes (Samuel and Bryant)
Methodology: use of variety of approaches = match method to issue
under investigation (considering all 3 studies)
Weaknesses Determinism: Many proposals about agerelated development have been
shown to be…read more

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Dement and
Kleitman --
physiological /
Background Psychodynamic psychology tried to explain dreams via interpretation
D&K want to find a scientific, reliable approach
Sample 9 adults, 7M/2F 5 studied intensively
Sample method Not reported!
Method Lab experiment
IV IV1) Woken in REM or nREM sleep
IV2) woken after 5 or 25 min REM
DVs For IV1) Recall of dreams
For IV2) estimation of dream length (5 or 15 min)
Other findings Found correlation of dream content to eye movement via self reports +…read more

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Conclusion brain functions divided by hemisphere each hemisphere is capable of a
separate consciousness
al / biological
Assumptions All that is psychological is first physiological ­ that since the mind
appears to reside in the brain, all thoughts, feelings and behaviours
ultimately have a physiological cause.
Strengths has provided explanations of e.g.
It provides strong counterarguments to the nurture side of the
naturenurture debate
It has useful applications e.g.…read more

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IVs IV(1) lame/drunk victim IV(2) white/black victim IV(3) latency of model
IV(4) proximity of model IV(5) crowd size
DVs DV(1) time to help (latency) DV(2) helper gender DV(3) helper 'race'
Method Field Experiment
Technique Observation
results people helped quickly (IV1) lame helped more than drunk (IV2) 'race'
not significant (IV3) quicker model more help (IV5) crowd size no
effect (DV2) males helped more
Conclusion helping determined via costbenefit calculation no diffusion of
responsibility due to being 'trapped'
Reicher &
Halsam -- social
ID Tyranny…read more

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SelfSelecting ad + flyers for `learning experiment'
Method Controlled Observation (sometimes called a lab experiment but not strictly
as no IV)
Techniques Record of willingness to shock @ 450v = "obedience"
Observation of reactions to procedure
Results 65% obeyed to 450v 100% @ 300v
Ps reacted strongly to stress hysterical laughter gouging back of hand
Conclusion ordinary people will obey lethal orders (13 explanations for why
participants obeyed)
Social approach
Assumptions other people and the surrounding environment are major influences
on an individual's behaviour, thought…read more

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Background unclear cases of identity young lady suffering from headaches from
which she has lapses of memory
Sample one young woman
Sample method opportunity
Method Case study
Techniques selfreport (interview) + observation + TESTS: EEG + psychometrics
(IQ, memory) + projective (Rorschach)
Results Patient showed sharp personality changes each alter lucid
EW higher IQ and memory scores
EW & Jane had similar EEG EB faster
Conclusion a rare case of `multiple personality disorder caused by childhood
background…read more


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