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Cognitive Approach

BaronCohen --
Background BC's own research with children (SallyAnne test) other tests with
adults (Happe)
sample Autistic/Asperger Syndrome (ASD) 13 m 3 f Tourettes Normal 25f+25M
(nonuniversity, matched for age range)
Sample method ASD: Self selecting (advert in autistic magazine) + some known to BC

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Conclusion Pygmy chimps can learn in the a very similar way to humans language
may not be uniquely human

Loftus & Palmer --
Cognitive approach

Background Studies on memory showing `postevent information' can distort
recall police interest in accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony

sample 45 (exp 1) +150 (exp 2)…

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Weaknesses often relies on Selfreport technique = demand characteristics
Usually studied through laboratory experiments [SR = case studies
in lab conditions] so lack ecological validity
often reductionist ignores the complexity of human functioning e.g.
biological / social / psychodynamic factors

Developmental Approach

Samuel and Bryant

ID Conservation


Page 4

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Method Case study

Sample method Opportunity

Techniques Self report + observation by father (Max) Freud only met Hans x1

Results Hans liked to play with his `widdler' fantasies about giraffes
(interpreted as taking his mum away from his dad) plumber cutting
of his `widdler' (but replacing it with copper!) Hans…

Page 5

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Assumptions internal mental processes such as memory, thinking, reasoning,
problemsolving and language, are important features influencing
human behaviour

Strengths Explanations:
why differing ages demonstrate different intellectual abilities, social skills
and emotional responses
Adding knowledge to the continuing nature versus nurture debate
Applications: Controlling violence on children's TV (Bandura) Helping

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Dement and
Kleitman --
physiological /
Background Psychodynamic psychology tried to explain dreams via interpretation
D&K want to find a scientific, reliable approach
Sample 9 adults, 7M/2F 5 studied intensively
Sample method Not reported!
Method Lab experiment

IV IV1) Woken in REM or nREM sleep
IV2) woken after…

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Conclusion brain functions divided by hemisphere each hemisphere is capable of a
separate consciousness

al / biological

Assumptions All that is psychological is first physiological ­ that since the mind
appears to reside in the brain, all thoughts, feelings and behaviours
ultimately have a physiological cause.…

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IVs IV(1) lame/drunk victim IV(2) white/black victim IV(3) latency of model
IV(4) proximity of model IV(5) crowd size
DVs DV(1) time to help (latency) DV(2) helper gender DV(3) helper 'race'

Method Field Experiment
Technique Observation
results people helped quickly (IV1) lame helped more than drunk (IV2) 'race'
not significant (IV3)…

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SelfSelecting ad + flyers for `learning experiment'

Method Controlled Observation (sometimes called a lab experiment but not strictly
as no IV)
Techniques Record of willingness to shock @ 450v = "obedience"
Observation of reactions to procedure

Results 65% obeyed to 450v 100% @ 300v
Ps reacted strongly to stress hysterical…

Page 10

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Background unclear cases of identity young lady suffering from headaches from
which she has lapses of memory

Sample one young woman

Sample method opportunity

Method Case study

Techniques selfreport (interview) + observation + TESTS: EEG + psychometrics
(IQ, memory) + projective (Rorschach)

Results Patient showed sharp personality…


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