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Thigpen & Cleckley (1954) - A psychodynamic approach taken Freud (1909) - Invented this perspective!
Background Unclear cases of identity where a young lady was suffering from
Background Freud had tried to explain the unconscious mind in terms of early
headaches from which she has lapses of memory (`blackouts').
childhood development but not investigated young children directly.
Sample One young woman (Eve White--real name Christine Sizemore)
Sample 1 boy studied between ages of 3-5 (Little Hans).
Sampling Method Opportunity sample. Method Longitudinal case study (using self report and observation by father.
Method Longitudinal case study.
Sampling Method Opportunity sample.
Techniques 100 hours of self-report (interviews) + observation + Formal testing:
Results Hans liked to play with his `widdler'. He had fantasies about giraffes
EEG + psychometrics (IQ, memory) + projective (Rorschach ink blot).
(interpreted as taking his mum away from his dad), of a plumber
Results Patient showed sharp personality changes; each alter -ego was lucid. cutting of his `widdler', and dreamed of marrying his mother and his
EW had a higher IQ (110) than EB (104). EW had superior memory father was promoted to `grandfather'.
scores than EB. On Rorschach test EW was repressive, EB was regres-
Conclusion (related to Hans was experiencing the Oedipus complex in the phallic stage of
sive). On EEG; EW & Jane had similar EEG; EB was faster.
psychodynamic development. His libido was unconsciously focusing on his mother,
Conclusion (related EW had a rare case of `multiple personality disorder' caused by child- aspect) which led to fear of his father and `castration anxiety'. This uncon-
to psychodynamic hood trauma. The MPD was a way for the unconscious mind to deal scious fear of his father was displaced onto horses (with a symbolic
aspect) with this trauma through the ego defence mechanisms of repression link of blinkers, moustache). Hans resolved his fear when he identi-
(EW) and regression (BE). fied with his father and resolved the Oedipus complex.
Psychodynamic Perspective (Section C)
Assumptions Many important influences on behaviour come from a part of the mind
individuals have no direct awareness of, the unconscious.
Strengths + Has provided explanations of phobias (e.g. Hans' fear of horse was an
unconscious transfer of fear of father)
+ Offers explanations for disorders such as MPD (e.g. It results from the
unconscious being unable to cope with childhood trauma. The different
personalities `defend' the unconscious via repression and regression).
+ It has useful applications and treatments for dealing with phobias and
treating MPD.
+ The perspective tends to adopt the case study method to investigate the
minds of individuals and so gathers detailed and extensive evidence.
Weaknesses - Evidence is based on subjective interpretation and individual case
studies, which makes them subject to researcher bias.
- The perspective is deterministic as it assumes the unconscious
dominates free will.
- It is also reductionist as it ignores other factors such as learned behav-
iour (i.e. that phobias could be a learned behaviour acquired through clas-
sical conditioning).

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Piliavin (1969) - As a Behaviourist Study Bandura (1961) - As a Behaviourist Study
Background Nobody helped in murder of Kitty Genovese - bystander effect - Background Debate over the influence of aggression; Freudian explanation was
`diffusion of responsibility' explanation. seeing aggression was `cathartic' (release) = reduced feelings of ag-
Sample Approx. 4,450 passengers on New York subway. 45% black and 55% gression after watching aggression.
white. Included both males and females. Sample 72 children; 36 boys and 36 girls. Mean age 4½ years.…read more


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