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Samuel and Bryant (1984)--Developmental Approach Bandura (1961)--Developmental Approach
Background Background Debate over the influence of aggression; Freudian explanation was
Piaget's research said children under 7years could not conserve. Rose
and Blank said children confused by Piaget's 2 question method ­ seeing aggression was `cathartic' (release) = reduced feelings of ag-
children could conserve quantity if only asked 1 question. gression after watching aggression.
Sample 72 children; 36 boys and 36 girls. Mean age 4½ years. All children
Sample 252 children, 5-8 years, M/F, from schools/playgroups in Devon. from Stanford University Nursery.
Sampling Method Opportunity sample. Sampling Method Opportunity sample.
Method Lab experiment (employing a self-report technique). Method Lab Experiment (Model Behaviour); Quasi (Sex).
IV's IV1 = Age; (5yrs, 6yrs, 7yrs, 8yts) IV2 = Task (mass, volume and IV IV1 = Sex of model. IV2 = Aggression/non-aggression shown by
number). IV3 = Condition; (2 Question, 1 Question, fixed array). model. IV3 = Sex of child.
DV Mean number of errors in conservation tests. DV Imitation of aggression (verbal/physical).
Results Older children made fewer errors on conservation tasks. 1 Question Results Children observing aggressive models were more likely to be aggres-
condition = under 7s made fewer errors. Participants made fewer sive. Boys were more physically and verbally aggressive overall.
Boys and girls most physically aggressive after male aggressive
errors on number task and most errors on volume task.
model. Girls most affected by same sex models for verbal aggression.
Conclusion Failure on traditional 2-question conservation task partly due to ask-
Conclusion Children imitate behaviour of aggressive models. Male models have
ing 2 questions, which leads to confusion. Children do conserve bet-
stronger influence on physical aggression. Imitation influenced by
ter with age, but Piaget may have underestimated their abilities.
identification with role models.
Freud (1909)--Developmental Approach Developmental Approach (Section C)
Background Freud had tried to explain the unconscious mind in terms of early Assumptions Behaviour develops throughout the lifespan, although the majority of
childhood development but not investigated young children directly. developmental changes occur in childhood. Developmental changes are
a result of both maturational processes (nature) and learned experiences
Sample 1 boy studied between ages of 3-5 (Little Hans).
Strengths + Has offered useful explanations for behaviour such as why differing
Method Longitudinal case study (using self report and observation by father. ages demonstrate different intellectual abilities (i.e. conservation), social
skills and emotional responses.
Sampling Method Opportunity sample. + Has added knowledge to the continuing nature versus nurture debate.
Results Hans liked to play with his `widdler'. He had fantasies about giraffes
+ Applications: Controlling violence on children's TV (Bandura); Help-
(interpreted as taking his mum away from his dad), of a plumber cut- ing teachers understand learning processes (Samuel and Bryant).
ting of his `widdler', and dreamed of marrying his mother and his + The approach adopts a variety of methods which allows researchers to
father was promoted to `grandfather'. suitably match the method to the issue under investigation (considering
all 3 studies).
Conclusion Hans was experiencing the Oedipus complex in the phallic stage of
development. His libido was unconsciously focusing on his mother,
Weaknesses Determinism: Many proposals about age-related development have been
which led to fear of his father and `castration anxiety'. This uncon-
shown to be too rigid (e.g. Freud; Piaget).
scious fear of his father was displaced onto horses (with a symbolic
Ethics: Often uses children (consent/vulnerable to harm).
link of blinkers, moustache). Hans resolved his fear when he identi-
fied with his father and resolved the Oedipus complex.

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Baron-Cohen (1997) -- Cognitive Approach Loftus & Palmer (1974)-- Cognitive Approach
Background B-C's own research with children (Sally-Anne test) - some high func-
Background Studies on memory showing `post-event information' can distort memory
tioning autistics can pass this test but this doesn't mean they have ToM.
recall; police interest in accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony.
Sample 16 adults with Autistic/Asperger Syndrome (ASD) 10 with Tourette's;
50 'normal' adults (non-university, matched for age range) Sample Exp 1: 45 students. Exp 2: 150 students.…read more

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Thigpen & Cleckley (1954)--Individual Differences Approach Rosenhan (1973)--Individual Differences Approach
Background Unclear cases of identity where a young lady was suffering from Background Debates about the reliability/validity of diagnosis of mental illness.
headaches from which she has lapses of memory (`blackouts').
Sample Staff (Psychiatrists, Nurses, and Staff) at 12 hospitals in 5 US states.
Sample One young woman (Eve White--real name Christine Sizemore)
Sampling method Opportunity sample.
Sampling method Opportunity sample.…read more

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Maguire (2000)--Physiological Approach Sperry (1968)--Physiological Approach
Background Hippocampus plays a role in spatial memory. Can the human brain Background Before the development of brain imaging technology of 1980s, little
show plasticity? Past views were that brain could not change in adults. was known about the working brain, especially the role of the corpus
Sample 16 right handed male taxi drivers, age range 32 -62, licensed for >1.5 callosum.
years, with no health problems. 50 matched non -taxi drivers.…read more

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Piliavin (1969)-- Social Approach Milgram (1963) -- Social Approach
Background Nobody helped in murder of Kitty Genovese - bystander effect -
`diffusion of responsibility' explanation Background Nazi Germany - soldiers obeyed orders to kill innocent civilians. Are
the Germans different, i.e. more obedient? `Authoritarian' personality
Sample Approx. 4,450 passengers on New York subway. 45% black and 55% (individualistic, rather than situational) explanation of lethal obedi-
white. Included both males and females. ence
Sampling method Opportunity sample.…read more


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