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Slide 1

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Conversational analysis
A reminder of the theorists
Their theories about power and the structure
of conversation can be used in all 3 units of
ENGB1. The Exam Board like to call this Ideas
from Language Study (ILS)…read more

Slide 2

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A word of warning
The text comes first! Analyse the texts using your
linguistic methods and discussing context. If any
research is relevant to what you find, then very
briefly link it e.g. Science lesson transcript we have
analysed. `In line 7, when the teacher wants the
student to expand on their answer, he/she adheres
to Lakoff's Politeness Principle when she says
`pardon' as opposed to `what'. This is a less
confrontational method of eliciting an answer from
the student and is more likely to achieve the desired
outcome ­ a correct answer.'…read more

Slide 3

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Please update your notes and
revise these research theories
Political Correctness and the Saphir Whorf Hypothesis. Thought
is governed by the language we use. Linguistic determinism
Howard Giles - Overt Prestige/Covert Prestige `Overt' means
open or obvious, `covert' means hidden or not obvious
Giles felt that people thought more in terms of prestige than
power ­ that is, who we respect depends on our value system ­
so the people we respect change depending on who we are and
on our personal value systems.
Overt. It is the prestige which comes with a job e.g. politician,
police officer, lawyer etc.
Covert. This is the prestige earned despite society's conventional
view e.g. the respect you may have for a local villain etc.…read more

Slide 4

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Erving Goffman, Penelope Brown, Steven
Levinson and Geoffrey Leech
­ all show how politeness and impoliteness can show or create
influence and persuasion. Face Saving and Threatening Acts are
Erving Goffman was intrigued by what lay behind everyday expressions
such as `losing face', `saving face' and `being shamefaced'.
He saw that without politeness, conversation didn't work and that the
need for politeness was rooted in `saving face':
`[face is...] the positive social value a person effectively claims for
himself by the line others assume he has taken during a personal
contact'…read more

Slide 5

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. recognised that whenever we
talk, we need to feel `liked'.
As a consequence, conversations are
sites for potential `loss of face' and that
`face work' must, therefore, be a part of
talk if `loss of face' is to be avoided and
co-operation is to be maintained…read more

Slide 6

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Brown and Levinson
Brown and Levinson developed Goffman's ideas into the concepts
of `positive' and `negative' face.
`Negative' Face
The desire to feel unimpeded, i.e. the freedom from feeling
imposed upon by the interaction.
`Positive' Face
The desire to feel approved of , i.e. to maintain a positive and
consistent self-image during the interaction.…read more

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