Controlling infectious diseases


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Revision Summary for Biology 1 (B1.4) ­ Controlling Infectious
Learning Outcomes
To learn that microorganisms that cause disease are known as
pathogens, but that many bacteria are "useful".
To know how viruses and bacteria differ in relation to their structure and
method of reproduction.
To realise that we feel ill because as these pathogens multiply within our
bodies they may destroy cells and release "toxins".
To be able to describe and evaluate the contribution made by
Semmelweiss to controlling infections and extend it to solving problems
with the spread of infections in hospitals today.
To describe the bodies first line of defence in preventing the entry of
To describe the different ways in which pathogenic microorganisms are
able to infect our bodies and spread from person to person.
To know that infectious microorganisms within our bodies are attacked by
white blood cells that either ingest the pathogen, produce antibodies
that destroy them, or antitoxins that counteract the toxins they release.
To know that many medicines relieve symptoms rather than cure the
To explain why we cannot treat diseases caused by viruses with
To know that many strains of bacteria, including MRSA, have developed
resistance to antibiotics as a result of natural selection, and to prevent
further resistance arising it is important to avoid the overuse of
Pupils should be able to use their skills, knowledge and understanding of
how Science works to evaluate the consequences of mutation of bacteria
and viruses in relation to epidemics and pandemics e.g. bird flu.
To learn that all new medicines are extensively trialled and tested before
used, which includes laboratory test for toxicity and small trials on human
volunteers to look for side effects.
To know about Thalidomide. How its use to treat morning sickness, for
which it had not been trialled, resulted in severe limb defects in babies
and that it was subsequently banned.

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To evaluate the potential benefits and dangers of Thalidomide's
resurrection in the treatment of diseases such as leprosy and cancer.
To know how the immune system responds to infection.
To describe how vaccination protects us from bacterial and viral diseases.
To be able to evaluate the advantage and disadvantages of being
vaccinated against a particular disease, with particular emphasis on MMR.…read more


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