First 221 words of the document:
National curriculum *Maths & science (logic) key to CD!
Key stages & sets cater for all!
Little abstract thinking in primary
*Shayer--abstract thought essential
for progress at secondary level.
Readiness *Hard to judge--subjective (Einstein)
*Brainerd '83--with appropriate help
children can conserve.
*Child--Readiness is pessimistic!
Concrete materials/age appropriate toys
*Used widely in playgroups/nurseries
Nuffield Science Project used concrete
materials to teach more complex ideas.
*Glenberg et al. `06--holding objects while
reading meant comprehension.
Discovery learning *Montessori schools (& Dartington!)
Child is active; teacher is a facilitator
*Brainerd--self-discovery is often less
effective than traditional teaching
*Jarvis `05--DL makes no great impact!
Individualised learning *Each child should have own pathway
to learning (individual)--Gov scheme
`Every Child Matters'
Not practical or cost effective
Social cognitive conflict *Creates disequilibrium & aids CD.
Doise et al. '84--exposure to others
results in CD.
Social marking *A social rule can be used to teach a
Doise et al. '81--when 4-6 yr. olds
were reminded that both children in
a conservation task deserved the
same reward, they understood the
concept of conservation better.
Positive feedback *Helps students learn better.
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Peer tutoring *Barnier '89--6-7 yr olds helped by 7-8 yr olds
spatial tasks quicker--best tutors just a bit
*Ellis et al. '92--PT equally helpful
(Navaho/white American) but tutoring styles
varied (Navahos more patient & less verbal).
*Blaye '91--PT works better in 11 yr olds
computer programs than working alone.…read more
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Bennett et al. '91--kids less competitive
& status seeking in groups but not all are
equally helped (lower class & shy).
Intersubjectivity Kunsche--v effective when students of
differing levels work together
*Widely used in political, racial & religious
discussions to encourage tolerance.…read more