Conservative Decline and the Rise of New Labour - Foreign Policy (AQA compete notes 15/16)

These notes are for the 'Making of Modern Britain' course on AQA and as such follow the spec, although would be useful for all modern britian courses. They contain hystoriography, detail and explanations. 

The notes are devided into the sections of the spec, therefore there are 16 documents (as there are 4 areas (politics, economics, society, and foriegn policy) and there are 4 periods (Post war, Wilson + heath, Thatcher, and Blair)). 

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Preview of Conservative Decline and the Rise of New Labour - Foreign Policy (AQA compete notes 15/16)

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Conservative
Decline
and
the
Rise
of
`New
Labour',
1990-2007
­
Foreign
Policy
Britain's
position
in
the
European
Union
under
Major
and
Blair;
Britain's
role
in
NATO
and
interventions
in
the
Balkans,1995-1999;
Britain's
`special
relationship'
with
the
United
States
and
its
impact
on
Britain's
position
in
the
world
by
2007.
John
Major
1990-1992
The
First
Gulf
War
-
1991
- Reasons
for
intervention
o Saddam
Hussein
and
his
`Republican
Guard'
invaded
Kuwait
in
August
1990,
there
was
international
condemnation,
as
he
had
infringed
on
Kuwaiti
sovereignty.
o The
invasion
also
caused
concerns
for
the
oil
supply
and
the
economies
of
the
west.
o Policeman
of
the
world
to
protect
interests.
(?)
! Pearce
and
Stewart
argue
Britain
was
not
a
great
player.
Only
supplied
10%
of
troops,
wouldn't
have
gone
without
US.
- Events
o Arab
states
in
the
region
were
concerned
about
a
dominant
Iraq
in
the
region,
and
they
formed
a
military
alliance.
o USA
and
the
UK
created
a
collation
force
and
joined
the
Arab
military
alliance.
o Saddam
was
instructed
to
withdraw
from
Kuwait.
He
refused.
Operation
Desert
Storm
was
launched.
o The
Iraqi
troops
set
fire
to
oil
wells
and
leaked
oil
into
the
Red
Sea
as
they
retreated.
o Saddam
remained
in
power
in
Iraq
as
the
UN
backed
mission
did
not
allow
for
him
to
be
toppled
from
power.
! (The
hope
was
that
the
Iraqi
people
would
remove
him.
They
didn't.)
- Results
o The
1991
Gulf
War
success
gave
Britain
a
sense
of
esteem,
but
did
nothing
to
reverse
the
comparative
trend
of
decline.
! In
earlier
decades,
Britain
had
occupied
all
of
Iraq
without
any
need
from
the
help
of
other
nations.
- Follow-Up
o The
UN
backed
mission
was
successful.
Later,
Saddam
gassed
the
Kurds
and
refused
to
co-operate
with
UN
inspection
teams.
The
UN
imposed
sanctions
­which
caused
terrible
suffering
to
the
Iraqi
people,
but
which
failed
to
dislodge
Saddam
from
power.
Special
relationship
- George
Bush
Snr
was
the
USA's
President.
He
had
replaced
Ronald
Reagan
in
1989.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

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The
year
had
witnessed
the
tumbling
of
the
Berlin
Wall.
The
USA
and
USSR
worked
more
closely
to
keep
peace
and
both
had
agreed
that
the
cold
war
was
over.
- Basically
it
continued,
but
was
less
good.
o Clinton
refused
to
speak
to
Major
face
to
face
due
to
his
support
for
Regan.
o Clinton
cancelled
Britain's
favoured
position
for
using
the
nuclear
testing
facility
in
Nevada.
- UK-
USA
cooperated
and
formed
an
alliance
in
order
to
fight
the
Gulf
War.…read more

Page 3

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Major
says
that
critics
are
wrong
that
Britain
made
any
concessions,
saying
`I
said
what
I
wanted
to
achieve,
and
I
went
there
and
achieved
it.'
o P.
Oborne
calls
it
`Probably
Major's
greatest
achievement'.
o K.O
Morgan
`what
major
choose
to
agree
as
opt-outs
was
a
skilful
choice'.
Reason
for
signing
- Given
that
the
cold
war
was
over
and
the
Empire
was
well
and
truly
gone,
Europe
was
the
only
arena
for
Britain
to
play
a
greater
role.…read more

Page 4

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Serbian
military
leadership
were
bombed
to
the
negotiating
table,
aided
by
UN
economic
sanctions.
o December
1995:
Dayton
peace
agreement
­
the
warring
parties
agreed
to
keep
to
certain
designated
areas,
which
were
to
be
monitored
by
UN
and
NATO
forces
! Major
was
one
of
the
signatories
when
the
Dayton
agreement
was
ratified
in
Paris,
with
USA,
France,
Russia
and
Germany.
- Historiography
o Bogdanor
says
the
failure
to
prevent
the
genocide
was
`a
terrible
blemish
on
an
otherwise
fine
record'.…read more

Page 5

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Ben
Wright
(BBC
political
analyst)
`It
wasn't
just
Realpolitik,
Blair
had
evangelism.'
Kosovo
- The
Balkans
war
continued,
with
Serbian
attacks
on
Kosovo.
o The
Dayton
Peace
Accords
had
broken
down.
o Blair
believed
that
Slobodan
Milosevic
had
been
allowing
Serbs
to
wages
genocide
against
Albanians
living
in
Kosovo.
- Blair
continued
Major's
policy
towards
NATO
and
the
UN
but
was
considerably
less
cautious.
o Blair
persuaded
Clinton
to
support
and
be
militarily
involved
with
NATO
air
strikes
against
Belgrade.…read more

Page 6

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The
US
reaction
to
the
terrorist
attack
was
to
invade
Afghanistan
to
oust
the
Taliban,
an
action
they
were
accompanied
in
by
many
nations
including
Britain.
o Osama
Bin
Laden
and
Mohammed
Omar
(Taliban
leader)
escaped.
o Democratic
government
was
established
but
progress
was
slow
for
economic
or
political
development.
- Iraq
War
(see
below)
- In
2007,
as
troops
were
removed
from
Iraq,
more
troops
were
put
into
Afghanistan.…read more

Page 7

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Oil
may
have
been
considered
by
America,
but
no
evidence
has
ever
linked
it
to
Britain's
reasoning.
o Saddam
had
gassed
his
own
people,
and
he
was
clearly
a
bad
man.
o Saddam
had
failed
to
cooperate
with
UN
resolutions.
UN
resolution
1441.
o UN
sanctions
were
not
working.
Saddam
was
still
in
power
and
people
were
suffering.
- Blair's
preparation
o Released
intelligence
information
`Dossier'
to
tell
people
why
the
invasion
was
needed.…read more

Page 8

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Economic
negotiations
were
led
by
Brown.
- There
was
an
agreement
write
off
the
entire
US$40
billion
debt
owed
by
18
Highly
Indebted
Poor
Countries
to
the
World
Bank,
the
International
Monetary
Fund
and
the
African
Development
Fund.
o `War
on
Want'
argued
this
wasn't
enough.
- Increase
in
overseas
aid
spending
­
because
it
was
a
moral
obligation
of
the
richer
nations
to
help
the
poorer.…read more

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Ten
new
members
joining
in
2004
and
Romania
and
Bulgaria
joined,
championed
by
Britain,
in
2007.
o Britain
was
one
of
three
nations
not
to
limit
free
movement
to
new
entries.
- 2005
budget
and
CAP
returned
as
an
Anglo-EU
issue.
o There
was
a
suggestion
that
the
rebate
should
stop.
o
Blair
argued
that
Britain
had
contributed
2.5
times
what
France
had
between
1995
and
2005
and,
without
the
rebate,
Britain's
contribution
would
be
15
times
that
of
France.…read more

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