Conditions that lead to tropical storms and hurricanes

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Global issues climatic hazards
Conditions that lead to tropical storms and hurricanes
Climatic controls
Tilt of the earth (axis)
Proximity to coastline
Ocean features
Local features, urban areas altitude
Causes of the Hadley cell
The equator is the hottest part of the earth as it receives most sunlight. The poles
face away from the sun in the winter and towards it in the summer creating
different temperatures in 2 hemispheres. The air at the equator is hot so it rises
and heads towards the pole which causes it to sink. The air that sinks is mostly dry
as most moisture fell at the equator. This creates deserts at latitudes of 30
degrees north and south. These winds were then bent by the Coriolis Effect
causing the wind to blow back along the ground towards the earth again.
The Coriolis Effect
This is when winds in the atmosphere are bent in different directions by the
motion of the earth's rotation. In the north it is bent to the right and in the south
it is bent to the south. This encourages large tropical storms to form into
Formation of hurricanes
Hurricanes form from tropical depressions which are small areas of low pressure
where air is rising. Only about 10% of tropical depressions develop into
hurricanes. For this to happen a number of conditions are needed. Firstly sea
temperatures must be over 27 degrees C, the warm sea heats the air above it
causing it to rise and condensation to occur. When this latent heat is released into
the atmosphere creating vigorous uplift of air and a deep low pressure system.
Cyclonic circulations develop in response to the earth's rotation. This is called the
Coriolis Effect and deflects air to the right in the north and to the left in the
south. Once this has established, the system is self perpetuating. At the eye of the
hurricane air descends creating cloudless skies.
Hurricanes are measured on the Saffir-Simpson scale which is a scale of 1-5, 5
being the strongest storm. A hurricane is a composite hazard which means it has
several factors that cause damage such as wind, rain and storm surges.
Distribution of hurricanes

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Global issues climatic hazards
The largest hurricanes are located at the 30 degree latitude mark. They are
located in the oceans and don't travel far inland. They are strongest in the
southeast of Asia and in the gulf of Mexico as the oceans are shallower here so
are easy to heat up.…read more


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