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Key Issue 1 ­ Pre-Chartist Radicals 1815-37
Popular Protest
Problems faced by Liverpool's govt. (Tory = wealth and monarchy).
Political system was unfair and corrupt (Rotten Boroughs).
Inefficient and out-dated.
Contested/Uncontested elections --- money and bribery via violence
involved for power.
Only wealthy could gain power --- unrepresentative of…

Page 2

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Methods and Leadership of protests 1815-1820.
Luddites 1812-1815: Led to outbreaks of violence ­ some mills were burned down,
machines smashed, mill owners attacked and some even killed.
Spa Fields 1816
Spenceans and Hunt organised meetings.
Hunt = main peaceful speaker.
Spenceans = violent. Marched and looted for weapons then…

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Seditious Meetings Act ­ restrictions on public meetings. Details
Training Prevention Act ­ No drilling for military purposes.
Seizure of Arms Act- Illegal to possess/carry arms ­ `danger to
Misdemeanours Act ­ put end to legal delays which could be used to
save prisoners.
Blasphemous and Seditious Libels…

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Riots 1831
Rioting in Bristol, mobs owned the streets for three days
Bishop's castle burnt down, he had voted against the Bill
Cavalry charge killed 12 and injured many
Whigs resigned when the second Bill was not passed, Wellington tried to
form a government but had strong opposition, Prince Regent…

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GNTCU ­ Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
Established by Owen
Robert Owen ­ published series of essays in 1817 on the need
for cooperation between workers to live in harmony and stop
harmful competition, disliked capitalism (utopia)
Failed due to `the document' ­ employers made sign if wanted work =…

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Carlile imprisoned for 3 years in 1819 ­ `The Republican' - Notoriety
increased popularity, still published by his wife
Anything sold for less than 6p had 4p tax added. Too expensive, most
workers earned less than 10p a week
Applied to all journals published more often than every 26 days…

Page 7

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Key Issue 2: What problems arose in the
treatment of the needs of children in this period
and how were they tackled?
Conditions for workers- men, women and children at the turn of the 18th
Long hours
Low wages
Poor conditions ­ dusty, cotton pieces breathed in, poorly…

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Max hours per week = 68
The impact of the act
Widespread evasion because employers wanted cheap labour and
parents wanted extra income
Births were only registered from 1836 so age of many children was
Failed to introduce 10 hour days
No public money for education so wages deducted…

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¾ of children went to Sunday school ­ didn't conflict with
working week
Teachers were voluntary, fees were low
Voluntary day schools
Two religious voluntary societies:
o The National Society = Anglican ­ ANDREW BELL
o British and Foreign School Society = Nonconformists ­
Monitorial system - a…

Page 10

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Key Issue 3: Why were poverty and public health
such significant issues?
Poor Law
Ways of dealing with the poor pre-1832: Old Poor Law, Gilbert's Act,
Old Poor Law 1601 ­
Parish authorities = responsible for poor
Poor rate collection
Overseer ­ decided how much money was needed and…




amazing, thanks!



Thank you sooo much!




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