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Condensed Chem: F321
Definitions:
Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
Atomic Number: Number of protons in an atom.
Mass Number: Total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Ion: A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms. (Cation ­ positive ion;…

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Salts;
Salts are formed by neutralisation of acids with...:
Carbonates
Bases
Alkalis
Ammonium salts contain the ammonium ion (NH4+) instead of the positive metal ion in normal salts.
Neutralisation reactions occur as follows;
Acid + Carbonate Salt + CO2 + H20
Acid + Base Salt + Water
Acid + Alkali…

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Anomalous properties of water;
Ice is less dense than water:
Ice has an open lattice ­ hydrogen bonds holding water apart. When ice melts, hydrogen bonds collapse and water molecules
can move closer together.
Water has a relatively high boiling and melting point:
Hydrogen bonds, in addition to van der…

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Disproportionation can occur when diatomic halogen molecules are both oxidised and reduced in the same reaction, e.g.
Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H2O
Identifying halides:
Dissolve unknown halides in water
Addition of AgNO3 (Silver Nitrate) to form AgX
Precipitate formed reveals identity of halide.
White ­ Soluble in…

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