Condensed Chemistry - F321 THE IMPORTANT BITS

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Condensed Chem: F321
Definitions:
Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
Atomic Number: Number of protons in an atom.
Mass Number: Total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Ion: A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms. (Cation ­ positive ion; Anion ­ negative ion.)
Relative isotopic mass: The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of
Carbon-12.
Relative atomic mass: The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element in relation to one-twelfth of the mass of an atom
of Carbon-12.
Relative molecular mass: The weighted mean mass of a molecule in relation to one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of
Carbon-12.
Relative formula mass: The weighted mean mass of a formula unit in relation to the mass of one-twelfth of an atom of
Carbon-12.
Avagadro's Constant: 6.02 x 10-23 (Number of atoms in a mole unit)
Mole: A unit of measurement which contains the same number of particles as there are carbon atoms in 12g of the Carbon-12
isotope.
Empirical Formula: Simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
Molecular Formula: The actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.
Species: Any type of particle which takes place in a chemical reaction.
Acid: Proton donor.
Base: Proton acceptor.
Salt: Any chemical compound which is formed from an acid when a H+ ion is replaced with a metal ion (or other positive ion,
eg. NH3)
Hydrated: Crystalline compound containing water molecules.
Anhydrous: Any substance that contains no water molecules.
Water of Crystallisation: Water molecules that form an essential part of a crystalline structure of a compound.
First ionisation energy: The amount of energy required (in kJ/mol) to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of
gaseous atoms.
Electron configuration: The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Ionic bond: An electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Covalent bond: A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
Metallic bond: Electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
Dative bond: A shared pair of electrons in a bond which has been provided by only one of the atoms.
Electronegativity: The measure of the attraction of a pair of bonded electrons to the bonded atoms.
Periodicity: Patterns and trends in properties across periods.
Disproportionation: The oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction.
Atomic Basics;
Calculation of empirical formula- the masses of elements in a compound divided by their relative atomic masses, then
divided by the smallest number.
Molecular formula- Number of units in a molecule multiplied by the empirical formula of a molecule.
Common Acids & Bases;
Acids:
HNO3 (Nitric Acid) HCl (Hydrochloric Acid) & H2SO4 (Sulphuric Acid)
Bases:
Metal Oxides e.g. MgO, CuO; Metal Hydroxides e.g. NaOH, Mg(OH)2; Ammonia NH3; Amines e.g. CH3NH2

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Salts;
Salts are formed by neutralisation of acids with...:
Carbonates
Bases
Alkalis
Ammonium salts contain the ammonium ion (NH4+) instead of the positive metal ion in normal salts.…read more

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Anomalous properties of water;
Ice is less dense than water:
Ice has an open lattice ­ hydrogen bonds holding water apart. When ice melts, hydrogen bonds collapse and water molecules
can move closer together.
Water has a relatively high boiling and melting point:
Hydrogen bonds, in addition to van der Waals' forces, mean that water must have more bonds broken before the state is able
to change.
Other:
Viscosity of water (water surface in particular interest of insects) which is also due to hydrogen bonding.…read more

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Disproportionation can occur when diatomic halogen molecules are both oxidised and reduced in the same reaction, e.g.
Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H2O
Identifying halides:
Dissolve unknown halides in water
Addition of AgNO3 (Silver Nitrate) to form AgX
Precipitate formed reveals identity of halide.…read more

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