Condensed Chemistry - F321 THE IMPORTANT BITS

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Condensed Chem: F321
Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
Atomic Number: Number of protons in an atom.
Mass Number: Total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Ion: A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms. (Cation ­ positive ion; Anion ­ negative ion.)
Relative isotopic mass: The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of
Relative atomic mass: The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element in relation to one-twelfth of the mass of an atom
of Carbon-12.
Relative molecular mass: The weighted mean mass of a molecule in relation to one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of
Relative formula mass: The weighted mean mass of a formula unit in relation to the mass of one-twelfth of an atom of
Avagadro's Constant: 6.02 x 10-23 (Number of atoms in a mole unit)
Mole: A unit of measurement which contains the same number of particles as there are carbon atoms in 12g of the Carbon-12
Empirical Formula: Simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound.
Molecular Formula: The actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule.
Species: Any type of particle which takes place in a chemical reaction.
Acid: Proton donor.
Base: Proton acceptor.
Salt: Any chemical compound which is formed from an acid when a H+ ion is replaced with a metal ion (or other positive ion,
eg. NH3)
Hydrated: Crystalline compound containing water molecules.
Anhydrous: Any substance that contains no water molecules.
Water of Crystallisation: Water molecules that form an essential part of a crystalline structure of a compound.
First ionisation energy: The amount of energy required (in kJ/mol) to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of
gaseous atoms.
Electron configuration: The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
Ionic bond: An electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
Covalent bond: A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons.
Metallic bond: Electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons.
Dative bond: A shared pair of electrons in a bond which has been provided by only one of the atoms.
Electronegativity: The measure of the attraction of a pair of bonded electrons to the bonded atoms.
Periodicity: Patterns and trends in properties across periods.
Disproportionation: The oxidation and reduction of the same element in a redox reaction.
Atomic Basics;
Calculation of empirical formula- the masses of elements in a compound divided by their relative atomic masses, then
divided by the smallest number.
Molecular formula- Number of units in a molecule multiplied by the empirical formula of a molecule.
Common Acids & Bases;
HNO3 (Nitric Acid) HCl (Hydrochloric Acid) & H2SO4 (Sulphuric Acid)
Metal Oxides e.g. MgO, CuO; Metal Hydroxides e.g. NaOH, Mg(OH)2; Ammonia NH3; Amines e.g. CH3NH2

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Salts are formed by neutralisation of acids with...:
Ammonium salts contain the ammonium ion (NH4+) instead of the positive metal ion in normal salts.…read more

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Anomalous properties of water;
Ice is less dense than water:
Ice has an open lattice ­ hydrogen bonds holding water apart. When ice melts, hydrogen bonds collapse and water molecules
can move closer together.
Water has a relatively high boiling and melting point:
Hydrogen bonds, in addition to van der Waals' forces, mean that water must have more bonds broken before the state is able
to change.
Viscosity of water (water surface in particular interest of insects) which is also due to hydrogen bonding.…read more

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Disproportionation can occur when diatomic halogen molecules are both oxidised and reduced in the same reaction, e.g.
Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H2O
Identifying halides:
Dissolve unknown halides in water
Addition of AgNO3 (Silver Nitrate) to form AgX
Precipitate formed reveals identity of halide.…read more


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