Condensation and Hydrolysis and their importance in Biology Essay Plan

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Condensation and Hydrolysis and their importance in Biology
Carbohydrates:
Monomers form polymers through a series of condensation polymerisation reactions, forming a
glycosidic bond.
Forming polysaccharides makes the molecule insoluble as it is so large.
Hydrolysis is used to break the glycosidic bond, releasing monosaccharides from a disaccharide.
Polysaccharides are found in plants as small granules or grains, for example chloroplasts.
Sucrase hydrolyses the single glycosidic bond in a sucrose molecule to produce glucose and fructose.
Glucose is then available for use in respiration where it is broken down to produce ATP.
Respiration:
Glycolysis is the activation of glucose by phosphorylation. The phosphate molecules come from the
hydrolysis of two ATP molecules to ADP, providing energy to activate glucose.
Amino Acids:
Amino acids combine together to make a polypeptide through a series of condensation reactions.
This produces the primary structure of proteins, determining the ultimate shape and function of the
protein. The proteins which are enzymes require a specific shape to function properly.
Muscular Relaxation:
When nervous stimulation ceases, calcium ions are actively transported back into the endoplasmic
reticulum using energy from the hydrolysis of ATP.

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