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Condensation and Hydrolysis and their importance in Biology
Monomers form polymers through a series of condensation polymerisation reactions, forming a
Forming polysaccharides makes the molecule insoluble as it is so large.
Hydrolysis is used to break the glycosidic bond, releasing monosaccharides from a disaccharide.
Polysaccharides are found in plants as small granules or grains, for example chloroplasts.
Sucrase hydrolyses the single glycosidic bond in a sucrose molecule to produce glucose and fructose.
Glucose is then available for use in respiration where it is broken down to produce ATP.
Glycolysis is the activation of glucose by phosphorylation. The phosphate molecules come from the
hydrolysis of two ATP molecules to ADP, providing energy to activate glucose.
Amino acids combine together to make a polypeptide through a series of condensation reactions.
This produces the primary structure of proteins, determining the ultimate shape and function of the
protein. The proteins which are enzymes require a specific shape to function properly.
When nervous stimulation ceases, calcium ions are actively transported back into the endoplasmic
reticulum using energy from the hydrolysis of ATP.