First 555 words of the document:
CONCEPT OF CAUSES:
Unlike Plato, Aristotle did not believe there are two separate realms. He believed the world we
live in is the only place in which we can have true knowledge, because it is through our sense
experience that we come to understand things.
Aristotle believed that `form' was not an ideal, but found within the item itself. The form is its
structure and characteristics and can be perceived using the senses.
The material of which things are made
Form of a table: It has four legs and a flat surface
Substance of a table: wood, nails and glue
Aristotle also used the term matter to define the stuff of which something is made:
A chair's matter is wood, and its form is the structure of the chair itself
Prime Matter refers to anything that lacks a well-defined form not organised in any particular
structure. It has matter but no form.
For Aristotle, God is the only thing that has form without matter
Small children often go through a phase of asking `why' about everything. They demand a
reason for each answer given, leading to a chain of reasons starting from the immediate
response and ending with the final response `because it just is.'
THE FOUR CAUSES
The explanation of things can be seen in four different ways, at four different levels.
I. Material Cause What the object is made of. The material cause of a statue would be gold or
bronze, for a chair it would be wood. Material is not enough on its own to make the object
what it is we cannot understand a great painting just by knowing the colored paints and
It asks the question: What is it made of?
II. Efficient Cause The agent that brings something about. In the case of a statue the act of
chiseling is the efficient cause.
It asks the question: How did it happen?
III. Formal Cause The characteristics of the object. The person or mythical beast that the
statue resembles. The statue is not just a lump of marble someone is chiseling away at.
It asks the question: What are its characteristics?
IV. Final Cause The reason for its existence. This is the most important aspect of Aristotle's
thinking. The final cause of a statue is the desire of the sculptor to make a decorative or
commemorative beautiful object.
It asks the question: What is it for?
Teleology is concerned with the final end or purpose of something. The `telos' of an object is
part of the object itself, it is intrinsic.
For Aristotle, everything in the universe has a purpose; just as the universe as a whole has a
Something is good if it achieves its end purpose, and its telos defines its good. Aristotle said
that if it were possible to discover the telos of an organism, it would be possible to determine
what needs to be done to reach that end.