Complete Unit 2 psychology notes

These are complete unit 2 psychology revision notes for edexcel. I hope they are helpful with your revision. They took me a long time to complete. Out of politeness, could you please leave a comment below saying thank you. Good luck :)

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Learning Approach
1. Behaviour is acquired by learning experiences e.g. phobias. Important factors is our
environment and our experiences. Nurture side of the naturenurture debate.
2. We learn through stimulus (IV) and response (DV). Responses are shaped according to
what happens (rewarded or not). All behaviour is learned, shaped by…

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+Standardised. Easily replicable etc...
Albert left the nursery early. So he was not debriefed. They also could check for longer term
Albert was not protected for psychological harm. Does not follow BPS guidelines.
Hard to generalise the findings as it is only one case. Does not have support from…

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Is based on operant conditioning. Uses reinforcement to encourage desired behaviour. Used in
prisons and psychiatric wards to encourage self sufficiency and nonaggressive behaviour.
Tokens are given for desired behaviours. They act as secondary reinforcement. They can be
exchanged for primary reinforcement. Uses positive reinforcement.
+Hobbs and Holt. TEP works…

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Ignores genetic elements affect learning. Focuses on environment factors.

Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)
Aim: To investigate whether exposure to a real life aggressive model increases the aggression in
Procedure: 72 children (35) at Stanford University nursery. 36 male and 36 female. 8
experimental groups of 6. Control group…

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more likely to repeat this behaviour. If gender inappropriate behaviour is shown, they are
punished and the behaviour is less likely to be repeated. Langlois and Downs found that
males will be punished more for showing female behaviours by their fathers. In schools
peers punish gender inappropriate behaviours e.g. a…

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Overt observations are when the participants are aware they are part of an observation,
they may not know why in a great deal of detail.
Covert observations are when the participants are unaware they are taking part in an
Non participants observations are when the researcher/observer is not part…

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Positrons collide with electrons, producing gamma rays which are picked up by the

Twins and Adoption studies
Twin studies
They are used to see if behaviours are shared by those who are genetically similar
Use concordance rates
Higher concordance rates between MZ twins than DZ twins.
Adoption studies

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There are two main parts, the spinal cord and the brain
Left hemisphere controls speech and language
Right hemisphere controls spatial abilities.
The brain controls over 100 billion neuron
The brain communicates with the rest of the body through the nervous system
Nerve cells communicate with each other through synapse.…

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Influence by hormones
After 3 months, if the testes have developed an antimullerian hormone is produced,
which prevents further development of female sex organs.
The testes then produce androgen which stimulate the development of male sex organs
on the foetus
The absence of the male sex hormone leads to the…

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+Constantly updating letters, seen once a year
+Strict controls on how to be raised which the parents followed closely
+She had a identical twin brother to be compared to
+Both Money and parents observed the children and contributed to the data
After 9 years, Money concluded it was a success.…




Thank You! This is amazing! i will use it well!!



Thank you :)

Gaya Ramanathan





thank you very much! :)

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