Complete Unit 2 psychology notes

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Learning Approach
1. Behaviour is acquired by learning experiences e.g. phobias. Important factors is our
environment and our experiences. Nurture side of the naturenurture debate.
2. We learn through stimulus (IV) and response (DV). Responses are shaped according to
what happens (rewarded or not). All behaviour is learned, shaped by our environment.
3. We learn through social, operant and classical conditioning.
Classical Conditioning
Learning through associations
The UCS is paired with a NS. The NS causes the same response as the UCS.
Pavlovs Dogs
Conditioning he noticed the dogs salivate at the sight of the lab assistants before the
food was present. Dogs had learnt to associate the technician with food.
Higher order conditions Pavlov began to pair the food with a bell. Well he presented the
food (USC) a bell was rang (NS). This caused the dogs to salivate (UCR). After a while
he began to ring the bell alone (CS), the dogs began to salivate to the sound of the bell
without the food (CR).
Stimulus Generalisation He found that dogs would salivate to anything that was similar
to the CS. For example, the dogs were trained to salivate at the sight of a circle would
also salivate at the sight of an oval.
Discriminate If you condition a dog to salivate at the sight of a circle and never present
food when a oval is shown. They will distinguish between the two and not salivate when
an oval is shown.
Extinction Dogs that were trained to salivate at the sound of a bell were no longer
presented with food at the sound of well. After a number of times the dogs stopped
salivating at the sound of a bell. The response became dormant.
Spontaneous Recovery If a dog is taken out of the experiment and brought back later, it
may salivate spontaneous to the sound of a bell. The response has been retrieved.
Watson and Rayner Little Albert
Aim: To investigate whether emotional responses, such as fear, can be conditioned.
Procedure: Albert was a healthy emotion child. At 11 months he was presented with a white rat
(NS) and showed no fear. As he reached out towards the rat, the researchers struck two bars
together (UCS). He jumped at the noise (UCR).They repeated this many times. The rat and
noise were paired together and Albert showed increasing distress. When the rat was shown by
its self (AS) it induced fear (CR).
Results: After one week, Little Albert demonstrated that he had acquired a fear of rats as a learnt
emotional response. He had created a stimulus generalisation to white fury things.
Conclusion: They concluded that it is possible to classically condition the emotional response of
fear, although the intensity appears to diminish in intensity over time.
+Carried out in lab setting. High control etc...

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Standardised. Easily replicable etc...
Albert left the nursery early. So he was not debriefed. They also could check for longer term
Albert was not protected for psychological harm. Does not follow BPS guidelines.
Hard to generalise the findings as it is only one case. Does not have support from the other
researchers who repeated it.
The researchers has to subjectively interpret Alberts response to the rat and noise. He may
have been crying for a different reason. Misinterpreted.…read more

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Is based on operant conditioning. Uses reinforcement to encourage desired behaviour. Used in
prisons and psychiatric wards to encourage self sufficiency and nonaggressive behaviour.
Tokens are given for desired behaviours. They act as secondary reinforcement. They can be
exchanged for primary reinforcement. Uses positive reinforcement.
+Hobbs and Holt. TEP works in correctional facilities. Improved behaviours.
+Paul and Lentz. Success in psychiatric hospitals. Increased selfsufficiency.
Hard to see if the tokens are reinforcing behaviour or the increased attention from staff.
Not generalisable to outside world.…read more

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Ignores genetic elements affect learning. Focuses on environment factors.
Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)
Aim: To investigate whether exposure to a real life aggressive model increases the aggression in
Procedure: 72 children (35) at Stanford University nursery. 36 male and 36 female. 8
experimental groups of 6. Control group 24. Children were in matched pairs in terms of physical
and verbal aggression. Lab experiment.
The children were individually brought in by the researcher and asked to sit in corner.…read more

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If gender inappropriate behaviour is shown, they are
punished and the behaviour is less likely to be repeated. Langlois and Downs found that
males will be punished more for showing female behaviours by their fathers. In schools
peers punish gender inappropriate behaviours e.g. a boy will be laughed at if he plays
netball. Stroufe found that preteens who do not conform with gender behaviour are less
Key issue The influence of models on anorexia.
Body weight below 85%.…read more

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Overt observations are when the participants are aware they are part of an observation,
they may not know why in a great deal of detail.
Covert observations are when the participants are unaware they are taking part in an
Non participants observations are when the researcher/observer is not part of the
experiment, they are observing from a sideline.
Participant observations are when the researcher is a participant as well as an observer.…read more

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Positrons collide with electrons, producing gamma rays which are picked up by the
Twins and Adoption studies
Twin studies
They are used to see if behaviours are shared by those who are genetically similar
Use concordance rates
Higher concordance rates between MZ twins than DZ twins.…read more

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There are two main parts, the spinal cord and the brain
Left hemisphere controls speech and language
Right hemisphere controls spatial abilities.
The brain controls over 100 billion neuron
The brain communicates with the rest of the body through the nervous system
Nerve cells communicate with each other through synapse.
Synaptic transmission
1. Action potential in the first cell triggers the release of neurotransmitters from a synaptic
vesicle in the terminal button of the presynaptic neuron.
2.…read more

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Influence by hormones
After 3 months, if the testes have developed an antimullerian hormone is produced,
which prevents further development of female sex organs.…read more

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Constantly updating letters, seen once a year
+Strict controls on how to be raised which the parents followed closely
+She had a identical twin brother to be compared to
+Both Money and parents observed the children and contributed to the data
After 9 years, Money concluded it was a success. This was too early as Brenda had not gone
through puberty yet. There would be many changes during this time which would produce liable
data.…read more



Thank You! This is amazing! i will use it well!!


Thank you :)

Gaya Ramanathan


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