Complete Unit 1 Psychology notes

These are complete unit 1 psychology revision notes for Edexcel. They cover the social and cognitive approaches. Feel free to use them in your revision. Please could you leave a comment saying thank you, just out of politeness. Good luck :)

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Cognitive Approach
1. The approach focuses on mental processes how we use them to make sense of the
world (perception, attention, language, thinking, problem solving and memory).
2. Believe that behaviour is influenced by cognition e.g. how we perceive and think
determines how we behave.
3. Assumes information processing to…

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Artificial setting, lacks ecological validity.
Unnatural task, lacks experimental validity
Recognition test provides cues. Not a true test of memory.

Multistore Model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin
3 separate stores. Sensory memory holds the info we receive through our perceptual system
briefly until we decide to give it attention. When…

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Control over extraneous variables, situation highly artificial.
Outcomes may not apply to reallife situations, explains behaviour in artificial condition.
Demand characteristics due to participants being aware of being in an experiment.
Experimenter effects.

Field experiment
Carried out in a natural environment.IV is directly manipulated but in environment typical of

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Duka et al 48 pp. Alcohol. 40 words.
Miles and Hardman 24 pp. Exercise bike.
Lang et al 54 pp. Fear of snakes and spiders.
+Support from the studies above.
+Anecdotal evidence. When we go to an old school, memories come flooding back.
Use word lists and artificial settings.…

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Comparing interference and cuedependency theories of forgetting.
Both say it is a problem with retrieving info
Both say forgetting can be from the LTM
Interference says forgetting is due to similar info getting confused. Cue dependency says
it is due to a lack of cues.
Interference says that…

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3. Culture and society affect our behaviour e.g. it is not seen as socially acceptable to spit
in public in the UK. Whereas in other cultures or countries it is, such as China.

The act of following an order given by a person who has recognised authority over you.…

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Procedure: pp's ordered to harass job applicants (confederate) to make them nervous. Told it
was in context to the research method. 39 pp volunteered from a newspaper article. Pp heard
the job applicants being told false info (if they failed the test it would not affect their chances).
The applicants…

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Agency Theory Milgram
Way of explaining obedience. Human behavior evolved to include the tendency to obey because
rule based behaviour enables stability of a complex human society. We obey when we act in two
states. These two states are opposing. We switch between the two.
The autonomous state is when…

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+Has support from Sherif's Robber's Cave experiment. When the boys at a summer camp were
grouped they became hostile towards each other when they were aware of each other.
+Has support from Tajfel's Minimal Group study. Found that people will discriminate in favour of
their ingroup.
+Explains realworld behaviour (football…

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Results: Before the tournament was introduced the boys were fighting. One group burnt the
other groups flag. When the prize was awarded, the other group stole it. There was a strong
ingroup preface. Violence began before the competition.
Conclusion: The introduction of competition increased prejudice and discrimination, leading to a…




many thanks :)

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