Complete Unit 1 Psychology notes

These are complete unit 1 psychology revision notes for Edexcel. They cover the social and cognitive approaches. Feel free to use them in your revision. Please could you leave a comment saying thank you, just out of politeness. Good luck :)

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Cognitive Approach
1. The approach focuses on mental processes how we use them to make sense of the
world (perception, attention, language, thinking, problem solving and memory).
2. Believe that behaviour is influenced by cognition e.g. how we perceive and think
determines how we behave.
3. Assumes information processing to be linear. INPUT > PROCESS > OUTPUT
4. Uses the computer analogy to explain information processing. Input senses in a human
and typing on a computer. Processing processed in the brain in human or on word on a
computer. Output behaviour in a humans and a print out on a computer.
Levels of Processing Model of Memory Craik and Lockhart 1972
Proposed there are two types of rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal we rehearse the info to preserve it. Unlikely to become a strong
memory.
Elaborative rehearsal giving the info meaning, more likely to become a strong memory
They also proposed we have a central processor which decides how information is processed.
Memory is a by product of processing.
If info requires effort or is distinctive, it is processed at a deeper level, this means the info is
retained for longer.
+Support from Craik and Tulving 1975 LOP experiment. Semantic rescaled best.
+Support from Hyde and Jenkins 1973 judging pleasantness and meaning of words increased
recall.
Craik and Lockhart later said imagery and emotionality important for durable memory, not depth
and meaning.
Morris 1977 found participants recall more phonetic than semantic.
Tyler 1979 showed that difficult anagrams were recalled better than easier one. Showed effort
not depth made durable memory.
LOP experiment Craik and Tulving 1975
Aim: To test the LOP theory by investigating where words processed at different levels would
affect recognition of those words
Procedure: 24 participants, shown 60 words through a projector. Asked a question about the
words which required either phonetic, structural or semantic processing. Then asked to
recognise the words from a list of 180.
Results: 17% structural, 36% phonetic, 65% semantic.
Conclusion: Recognition is greater for the words which are processed at a semantic level.
Deeper processing leads to better recognition.
+Lab experiment. High controls. A cause and effect relationship can be established.
+Participants were not told they were taking part in a recognition test so did not deliberately try to
remember. Valid test of memory.

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Artificial setting, lacks ecological validity.
Unnatural task, lacks experimental validity
Recognition test provides cues. Not a true test of memory.
Multistore Model of Memory Atkinson & Shiffrin
3 separate stores. Sensory memory holds the info we receive through our perceptual system
briefly until we decide to give it attention. When we give it attention it is transferred into out STM.
Our STM holds around 7 bits of information for 1830 seconds. If we keep rehearsing the
information it is transferred into our LTM.…read more

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Control over extraneous variables, situation highly artificial.
Outcomes may not apply to reallife situations, explains behaviour in artificial condition.
Demand characteristics due to participants being aware of being in an experiment.
Experimenter effects.
Field experiment
Carried out in a natural environment.IV is directly manipulated but in environment typical of
behaviour being studied.
+Participants may not be aware of being in an experiment, behaviour realistic, no demands
characteristics.
+Real life situation internal validity.
No control over extraneous variables, may affect results, decreasing validity.…read more

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Duka et al 48 pp. Alcohol. 40 words.
Miles and Hardman 24 pp. Exercise bike.
Lang et al 54 pp. Fear of snakes and spiders.
Evaluation
+Support from the studies above.
+Anecdotal evidence. When we go to an old school, memories come flooding back.
Use word lists and artificial settings. Less realistic and valid.
Better explained by interference.
Impossible to separate state and context. Chocolate may create feelings of happiness.…read more

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Comparing interference and cuedependency theories of forgetting.
Similarities
Both say it is a problem with retrieving info
Both say forgetting can be from the LTM
Differences
Interference says forgetting is due to similar info getting confused. Cue dependency says
it is due to a lack of cues.
Interference says that durable memory requires focusing on one piece of information at a
time.
Interference also says that forgetting can be from the STM
Is Eyewitness Testimony reliable?
Case for unreliability:
AO1 Bartlett reconstructive memory.…read more

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Culture and society affect our behaviour e.g. it is not seen as socially acceptable to spit
in public in the UK. Whereas in other cultures or countries it is, such as China.
Obedience
The act of following an order given by a person who has recognised authority over you. Going
along with something even if you don't believe in it.
Obedience normally keeps us safe
Obedience allows complex systems to run smoothly e.g. drivers obey traffic lights to
prevent crashes.
Obedience can save lives eg.…read more

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Procedure: pp's ordered to harass job applicants (confederate) to make them nervous. Told it
was in context to the research method. 39 pp volunteered from a newspaper article. Pp heard
the job applicants being told false info (if they failed the test it would not affect their chances).
The applicants became distressed and accused the researcher of giving false information. The
conversation between the applicant and researcher was scripted. If the pp refused to make the
remarks they were prodded to continue.…read more

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Agency Theory Milgram
Way of explaining obedience. Human behavior evolved to include the tendency to obey because
rule based behaviour enables stability of a complex human society. We obey when we act in two
states. These two states are opposing. We switch between the two.
The autonomous state is when an individual directs and take responsibility of their own
actions.…read more

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Has support from Sherif's Robber's Cave experiment. When the boys at a summer camp were
grouped they became hostile towards each other when they were aware of each other.
+Has support from Tajfel's Minimal Group study. Found that people will discriminate in favour of
their ingroup.
+Explains realworld behaviour (football crowd violence).
+Has useful application. If prejudice stems from grouping, the Common Ingroup Identity Model
can help tackle prejudice.
Simplifies complex human relations. Prejudice could be due to historic background.…read more

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Results: Before the tournament was introduced the boys were fighting. One group burnt the
other groups flag. When the prize was awarded, the other group stole it. There was a strong
ingroup preface. Violence began before the competition.
Conclusion: The introduction of competition increased prejudice and discrimination, leading to a
clear intergroup conflict
Evaluation:
+Ecological validity reflects real world environment for the boys.
+Experimental validity they were unaware they were in an experiment so there would be little or
no demand characteristics.…read more

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