Complete Revision Notes for AQA AS Government & Politics; Participation Topic

Good luck! I used a number of sources for these notes and not just the AQA textbook, thus they may be suitable for all exam boards.

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COMPLETE REVISION NOTES FOR AS AQA POLITICS; PARTICIPATION TOPIC
(in random order ­ sorry!)

WHO PARTICIPATES?

Q Milbrath and Goel in the USA used Roman gladiatorial contests to label the public:
- GLADIATORS: small percentage of activists who are keep participants
- SPECTATORS: large majority, observe the contest but limit…

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1. Homogeneity ­ the belief that citizens share a common heritage and identity; a sense of
togetherness that overrides what divides them.
2. Consensus ­ UK citizens accept the basic `rules of the game'. These are things such as the
need for tolerance, pragmatism, peaceful negotiation and compromise.
3. Deference…

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The Burkean view is that citizens elect representatives to represent them in a legislature and
that these individuals should represent the interests of their constituents until the next
election.
However represents are not simply delegates sent with instructions to follow. They may
make their own decisions that may go against…

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E.G an e-petition trying to stop the Nursing and Midwifery council from rising nurse's
registration fees to over £100. Because the petition went over 10,000 signatures the
government responded and offered the NMC (an independent body) a one of £20 million
pound grant to help improve services. If the petition…

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boosted her reputation.
Q Howard Macmillan: "events, dear boy, events"


CREWES "DECADE OF DELALIGNMENT" STUDY OF THE 1970S
Crewe's publication of the "decade of dealignment" was a psephological milestone.
He used date from Essex University's British Election Study he analysed elections in the
1970s culminating in the Conservative 1979 victory.…

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Instrumental act for people to achieve their goals.
Q Sanders in 1996 suggested that the state of the economy and voters views on it was
very important in how people decided to exercise their vote.
4. DOMINANT IDEOLOGY THEORY: In an age of of dealignment, what people see, hear and…

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E.g. In the American election focus was mostly on swing states such as New Hampshire,
Ohio, Colorado and Florida. Whereas Texas has been Republic in every election since 2000.
5. Electoral System
Some argue that an electoral system that has representative representation would achieve
more votes as people feel like…

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manifesto. E.g. in Labours 1997 manifesto they pledged to bring about a more democratic social
chamber. It delivered this with the House of Lords Act 1999.




Low turnout brings into question the government's legitimacy and the strength of the
mandate.
In 2005 the Labour Party won with the support of35%…

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KT Donkey Vote: Under a preferential system where people simply number 1,2,3,4 in the order
they are on the sheet.

KT Informal Vote: Ballots which are completed incorrectly under a system of compulsory voting.


THE ECONOMY AND PARTY LEADERS AS INFLUENCES
As we know voting is influenced by long and…

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Features of the Post War years up to the 1970s:

Stability of Voting Patterns
Q Punnet: "for most people, voting behaviour is habitual and ingrained"
Elections determined by a body of floating voters in key marginal constituencies
recent examples include Florida and Texas in the USA.
The Domination of the…

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Jordon

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VERY GOOD REVISION NOTES!

Former Member

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Thanks a lot for this. Just what I need...a concise set of notes!

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