Complete Memory Revision: PSY AS UNIT 1

A complete presentation for the Memory subtopic of the AQA AS Level Unit 1 course. Outlines the entire course, gives study detail, and quick review multiple choice questions at the end of each sub chapter, as well as an outline of what you need to know for the exam. 

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 18-05-12 14:13
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THE MULTI-STORE MODEL Sensory Short-Term Long Term
Transfer
Sensory
Attention
Information
OF MEMORY Memory Memory Retrieval Memory
Shiffon and Atkinson proposed the Multi-Store model
Store Store
of memory. This has three separate stores:
Sensory Memory: A short duration store retaining
unprocessed impressions of information received Rehearsal
through the senses. When attention is paid to this
information, it passes to the STM.
Short-term memory: A temporary information store.
The STM has a duration of 18-30s, a capacity of 5-7
pieces of information, and information is encoded
acoustically (through sound). E.g. To encode
something in your STM, you may repeat the word
over and over again.
Long-term memory: An information store which
stores information infinitely and with a theoretically
infinite capacity. Information passes here after
transfer and retrieval. Information is encoded Study Detail: The Multi-
semantically (through meaning.)
Store Model
The Encoding of the LTM: Baddely 1966
The Capacity of STM: Jacobs 1887 A lab study in which participants were presented
The Duration of the LTM
A lab study in which the participants with lists of 5 words. Bahrick et al 1975: 392 graduates USA shown
listened to a letter or a number list of 1 There were four conditions: year book pictures .
syllable. Acoustically similar e.g. Man, can Some were asked to recognise people from
Immediately, they were asked to recall the Acoustically dissimilar: pen, day, few photos: 90% accuracy three years after
Semantically similar: great, big graduation. 60% after 47 years.
information. Recall group were asked to name person in the
The amount of letters or numbers increased Semantically dissimilar: hot, old
Results: Semantically similar = harder to recall. picture 60% accuracy 7 years after graduation
throughout the study. and 40% after 47 years.
Results: Participants could remember est. 55% accuracy. This shows that recall lasts a long time!
9 numbers or 7 letters. Semantically dissimilar = easier recall, 75%
accuracy.
In STM, encoding is mainly acoustic.…read more

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Strengths and weaknesses
There is considerable The MSM: Supporting Study: Glanzer and
research evidence for the Cunitz (1996)
Condition 1: participants were presented with a
existence of distinct types of word list, one at a time, then asked to recall this
in any order immediately. Condition 2: Same as
memory stores. immediate recall, but 30 seconds of counting
backwards before recall. RESULTS: Participants
The MSM was very
immediately recalled the first and last words.
This suggests the primacy/recency effect:
influential: without it, further separate stores hence the better remembering.
understanding of memory
such as the WMM may not
exist!
The multi-store model is
over-simplified in assuming
that there is a single STM and
a single LTM.
MSM describes memory in
terms of structure: however,
MSM focuses too much on
structure rather than
processes.…read more

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Questions- The MSM
The Sensory, Temporary and Long Term
Which of these
are the three The Working Memory Short Term Memory,
`stores' of the Long Term Memory
multi-store
The Sensory Memory, The Short Term
model? Memory, The Long Term Memory Click the
answer you
think is
correct!
5 ­ 7 pieces of information
What is the
3 ­ 9 pieces of information
capacity of the
STM?
6 ­ 9 pieces of information…read more

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Questions- The MSM
Around 100 pieces of information
What is the
Around 1000 pieces of information
capacity of the
LTM?
Infinite
Semantically
How is
information in Acoustically
the STM
encoded?
Visually…read more

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Questions- The MSM
Semantically
How is
information in Acoustically
the LTM
encoded?
Visually
35 ­ 50 seconds
What is the
1 minute ­ 2 minutes
duration of the
STM?
18 ­ 30 seconds…read more

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