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Prehistory
What they thought caused illness

Natural included hunger, climate, accidents, parasites and wounds

Supernatural included spirits of the dead, planets, witches and magic

Surgery

Trephining was a procedure that was thought to help illnesses such as broken skull, epilepsy and
headaches, although it was suggested that it was also…

Page 2

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They kept more animals, which transferred disease to humans such as polio, typhoid and cholera

Egyptians
Over view

Some treatments were effective as mould from rotten bread were antibacterial so cleared wounds,
radishes, garlic and onion were fed to pyramid workers whose chemicals prevented dysentery,
typhoid and cholera.

What they…

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Religion helped because they embalmed the dead, they gained some anatomical knowledge
although limited because only opened up areas that were necessary, tended to be aware of organs
like heart, liver, lungs etc but didn't know functions.

Hindered because couldn't experiment or research further because they thought the person would…

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Overview

Still mixed natural and supernatural

What they thought caused illness

They believed that the gods made you ill until the theory of the four humours came forward but they
were split between the ideas so believed that unbalanced humours caused illness.

Surgery

Lung draining

Amputation

Surface issues i.e. cutting…

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Religion hindered as they had ideas and wanted to explore the body but religious beliefs and
leaders prevented body dissections so advances were prevented too. Also they believed visiting
Asclepius would heal them so didn't see a need to research further.

Individual genius helped as Hippocrates brought the oath, the…

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Public health included aqueducts, stone water channels; water cleaned via settling basins and
reservoirs which allowed the dirt to sink to the bottom, water was piped underground to street
fountains and to public baths and lavatories.

What they thought caused illness

Some believed in gods although a majority believed in…

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Religion helped as Galen believed that the body was designed by one god as the brain
controlled the body and everything worked together and so had the backing of Christian
church.

Chance helped as Galen encouraged students to dissect bodies but it was rare to encounter
stray bodies so sometimes…

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In terms of Black Death - invisible creatures that entered body would emit poison or lay
poisonous eggs which went into the bloodstream and infected the person.

Illness were from god to punish sinners

Planet alignment and moon affected fluids in body

Common sense reasons for example bad smells

Surgery…

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Government hindered as there was no law and order and the church seemed to take over
and built up trust, so there weren't questioned as seen like saviours.

Money spent on war rather than public health schemes.

Religion as with government and also monasteries controlled education therefore doctors
were only…

Page 10

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What they thought caused illness

Imbalanced humours

Seeds of disease which settled in infected body parts ­ linked dirt and disease

Miasma

Surgery

Cauterising (not after ligatures invented)

Ligatures (and ointment)

Removal of weapons and bullets

Amputations by barber surgeons

Treatments and prevention

Purging

Bleeding

King's touch for Black Death…

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